Saturday, November 22, 2008

Car run by Air coming soon to India by TATA motors

A compressed air car is an alternative fuel car that uses a motor powered by compressed air. The car can be powered solely by air, or combined (as in a hybrid electric vehicle) with gasoline/diesel/ethanol or electric plant and regenerative braking.

Tata Motors signed an agreement with MDI to continue research on air powered motors and cars. The time line for bringing their compressed air car, the Tata OneCAT, to market has been said to be in 2008 or 2009. Other companies are also working on air cars.
The compressed air car has been mentioned in Popular Mechanics as being the true car of tomorrow, with a range comparable to an electric vehicle or fuel-cell car. It does not offer zero emissions at the tailpipe without batteries or hydrogen fuel.
Compressed air cars are powered by engines fueled by compressed air, which is stored in a tank at high pressure such as 30 MPa (4500 psi or 300 bar). The storage tank is likely to be made of carbon-fiber in order to reduce its weight while achieving the necessary strength. Instead of mixing fuel with air and burning it to drive pistons with hot expanding gases; compressed air cars use the expansion of compressed air to drive their pistons.
The idea is not new. There have been prototype cars since the 1920s and compressed air has been used in torpedo propulsion as well.
Compressed air is a heavy way of storing fuel, 300 litres (11 cu ft) air at 30 MPa (4,500 psi) contains about 16 kWh of energy (the equivalent of 1.7 liters  of gasoline, assuming a 100% efficiency of the engine). During rupture testing, the tank cracks, but does not break up, producing no splinters or fragments.
All four major manufacturers that are developing air cars have designed safety features into their containers. In contrast to hydrogen's issues of damage and danger involved in high-impact crashes, air, on its own, is non-flammable. It was reported on Discovery's Beyond Tomorrow that on its own, carbon-fiber is brittle and can split under sufficient stress, but creates no shrapnel when it does so. Carbon-fiber tanks safely hold air at a pressure somewhere around 4500psi, which is good when compared with steel tanks.
Emission output
Due to this reason, a compressed air car's emission output can vary both with location and time. Different regions can have very different sources of power, ranging from high-emission power sources such as coal to zero-emission power sources such as wind. A given region can also update its electrical power sources with time, thereby improving or worsening emissions output.

The principal advantages of an air powered vehicle are:
* Refueling can be done at home using an air compressor or at service stations. The energy required for compressing air is produced at large centralized plants, making it less costly and more effective to manage carbon emissions than from individual vehicles.

* Reduced vehicle weight is the principal efficiency factor of compressed-air cars. Furthermore, they are mechanically more rudimentary than traditional vehicles as many conventional parts of the engine may be omitted. Some plans include motors built into the hubs of each wheel, thereby removing the necessity of a transmission, drive axles and differentials. A four passenger vehicle weighing less than 800 pounds (360 kg) is a reasonable design goal.
* One manufacturer promises a range of 200 kilometres (120 mi) by the end of the year at a cost of € 1.50 per fill-up.
* Compressed air engines reduce the cost of vehicle production by about 20%, because there is no need to build a cooling system, spark plugs, transmission, axles, starter motor, or mufflers.
* Most compressed air engines do not need a transmission, only a flow control.
* The rate of self-discharge is very low opposed to batteries that deplete their charge slowly over time. Therefore, the vehicle may be left unused for longer periods of time than electric cars.
* Lower initial cost than battery electric vehicles when mass produced. One estimate is €3,000 less.
* Expansion of the compressed air lowers in temperature; this may be exploited for use as air conditioning.
* Compressed-air vehicles emit no pollutants.
* Air turbines, closely related to steam turbines, is a technology over 50 years old. It is simple to achieve with low tech materials. This would mean that developing countries, and rapidly growing countries like China and India, could easily implement a less polluting means of personal transportation than an internal combustion engine automobile.
* Possibility to refill air tank at home (using domestic power socket).
* Lighter vehicles would result in less wear on roads.
* The price of fueling air powered vehicles may be significantly cheaper than current fuels. Some estimates project $3.00 for the cost of electricity for filling a tank.
* Reduction or elimination of hazardous chemicals such as gasoline or battery acids/metals
Like the modern car and most household appliances, the principle disadvantage is the indirect use of energy. Energy is used to compress air, which - in turn - provides the energy to run the motor. Any conversion of energy between forms results in loss. For conventional combustion motor cars, the energy is lost when oil is converted to usable fuel - including drilling, refinement, labor, storage, eventually transportation to the end-user. For compressed-air cars, energy is lost when electrical energy is converted to compressed air.

* When air expands, as it would in the engine, it cools dramatically (Charles law) and must be heated to ambient temperature using a heat exchanger similar to the Intercooler used for internal combustion engines. The cooling is necessary in order to obtain a significant fraction of the theoretical energy output. The heat exchanger can be problematic. While it performs a similar task to the Intercooler, the temperature difference between the incoming air and the working gas is smaller. In heating the stored air, the device gets very cold and may ice up in colder climates.
* Refueling the compressed air container using a home or low-end conventional air compressor may take as long as 4 hours though the specialized equipment at service stations may fill the tanks in only 3 minutes.
* Early tests have demonstrated the limited storage capacity of the tanks; the only published test of a vehicle running on compressed air alone was limited to a range of 7.22 km.
* A 2005 study demonstrated that cars running on lithium-ion batteries out-perform both compressed air and fuel cell vehicles more than three-fold at same speeds. MDI has recently claimed that an air car will be able to travel 140km in urban driving , and have a range of 80 km with a top speed of 110km/h on highways, when operating on compressed air alone.
Crash Safety Unproven
North American crash testing has not yet been conducted, and skeptics question the ability of an ultralight vehicle assembled with adhesives to produce acceptable crash safety results. Shiva Vencat, vice president of MDI and CEO of Zero Pollution Motors, claims the vehicle would pass crash testing and meet U.S. safety standards. He insists that the millions of dollars invested in the AirCar would not be in vain. To date, there has never been a lightweight, 100-plus mpg car which passed North American crash testing. Technological advances may soon make this possible, but the AirCar has yet to prove itself, and collision safety questions remain.
The key to achieving an acceptable range with an air car is reducing the power required to drive the car, so far as is practical. This pushes the design towards minimizing weight. In a collision the occupants of a heavy vehicle will, on average, suffer fewer and less serious injuries than the occupants of a lighter vehicle. An accident in a 2000 lb (900 kg) vehicle will on average cause about 50% more injuries to its occupants than a 3000 lb (1350 kg) vehicle. Air cars may use low rolling resistance tires, which typically offer less grip than normal tires. In addition, the weight (and price) of safety systems such as airbags, ABS and ESC may encourage manufacturers not to include them.

MDI and Tata Motors
MDI proposes a range of vehicles developed on an identical concept, made up of MiniCATs and CityCATs.
The MDI MiniCat has a range of up to 1000 miles when fitted with an internal combustion engine, but that drops to 30 miles when used in ZEV mode at low speeds in cities. OneCAT, priced in a range ($5,100 to $7,800) within reach of consumers in a developing economy, such as India.
The ultralight bodies of the vehicles would be made of glued-together fiberglass and injected foam, and the aluminum chassis would also be glued, not welded, to simplify manufacturing.
The engine is available in two versions. The Mono Energy air engine is a true air engine. The Dual Energy engines are Internal combustion engines, which use hydrocarbon fuels.
They have licensed 12 factories : 5 in Mexico, 3 in Australia and New Zealand, 1 in South Africa and 3 in France. MDI Andina S.A is going to sell the car in Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Panama. MDI has entered into an agreement with Tata Motors, to produce air cars in India. Zero Pollution Motors will be the first company to manufacture and sell a car in the U.S. called the "Air Car" using MDI technology. ZPM will begin taking reservations in early 2009 for US deliveries in early 2010.


Tuesday, November 18, 2008

The Hunk is here from Hero Honda

Manufacturer :Hero Honda Motors India Ltd

Production     :October 2007

Class             :150 cc

Engine           :149.2 cc

Top speed     :119 km/h

Power           :14.4 bhp

Torque          :1.3kg/m3

Transmission  :5 speed manual

Suspension     :gas charged bi shock

Brakes           : front single disk & rear drum

Wheelbase     :1340 mm

Fuel capacity  :12.2 litres

Oil capacity    :1litres

Fuel consumption : 55 km/l
Hero Honda Hunk is a 150 cc premium bike launched by Hero Honda Motors India Ltd in October 2007. It is offered in two variants-kick start and self start,priced at Rs 55,000 and Rs 57,000 respectively.(Ex showroom, Delhi )

The Hunk has a stepped seat and rear set foot pegs which gives the rider a sporty stance without sacrificing rider comfort. The vibrations are well controlled.. The bike also features gas charged adjustable rear shock absorbers and a puncture resistant tire.

The Hunk has the 149 cc engine used in Honda Unicorn and Hero Honda CBZ Xtreme with tumble flow technology which the company claims will reduce emissions and fuel consumption. The bike has a top speed of 108 kmph and is capable of doing 0-60 kmph in 5.5 seconds. It has an overall fuel efficiency of 55 kmpl.
The Hunk has won the following awards

TopGear Design Awards 2008 - Bike of the Year

NDTV Profit Car India & Bike India Awards - “Viewers’ Choice Award” in Bike category


Sunday, November 16, 2008

Honda Jazz (india launch) price information

Engine(s) :
* 1.3 L (≈79 cu in) I4 i-VTEC
* 1.5 L (≈92 cu in) I4 i-VTEC
Wheelbase :2500 mm (98.4 in)

Length        :3985 mm (156.9 in)
Width         :1695 mm (66.7 in)
Height         :1525 mm (60 in)
Curb weight : 1,200 kg (2,646 lb)
Fuel capacity :42 L (11 US gal/9 imp gal)

The Honda Fit, also called Honda Jazz, is a five-door hatchback subcompact produced by Honda of Japan, that was first introduced in June 2001. The vehicle is known as the Fit in Japan, China, and in both North and South America. It is called the Jazz in Europe, some parts of Asia, Australia, Oceania, the Middle East, and Africa.
On 17 July 2007, Honda CEO, Takeo Fukui, announced during a press event that the next-generation Honda Fit/Jazz would make its debut in the fall of 2008 in Japan. Events leading up to the introduction of the second-generation Honda Fit slowly unveiled more information about the vehicle. On 28 August, 2007, manufacturer brochures were leaked and indicated that the second generation Honda Fit may feature three trim levels; G, L and RS. It is speculated the G and L trim levels will feature a new 1.3 L (≈79 cu in) i-VTEC engine that makes 98 hp (73 kW), while the 1.5 L (≈92 cu in) i-VTEC will be reserved for the Fit RS and will feature 118 hp (88 kW). On 20 September, 2007, images that appeared to be official promotion photography were leaked onto the internet of the 2009 Honda Fit. Again, the new model has a pronounced one-box shape. The photos also showed a panoramic glass roof.
On 20 August, 2007, Honda released official pictures and specifications of the new Fit.The vehicle was wider, longer, and with a longer wheelbase. Height was unchanged due to mechanical parking in Japan. ULTR magic seats were retained in the second generation, rear headrests were redesigned for better convenience when folding down the seats which now only takes two steps to fold down the whole back row. Growth in dimensions brought more space to the cabin, boot capacity increased from 12.7 to 14.2 cubic feet (0.40 m3). There is also a hidden box under the floor. Although there is no increase in the height of the body, the interior height gained another .3 in, being benefited by the new layout of the platform.

Two engines will be offered in the new Fit. A 1.3 L (≈79 cu in) i-VTEC will produce 98 hp (73 kW) at 6000 rpm and 98 lb·ft (133 N·m) at 4500 rpm. This engine will be offered in both European and Asian markets. A 1.5 L (≈92 cu in) i-VTEC engine will also be offered and have a maximum output of 118 hp (88 kW) at 6000 rpm and 107 lb·ft (145 N·m) at 4800 rpm. This will be the only engine available in the American market. A 5-speed manual, 5-speed automatic (4WD only) and CVT transmission are available.
The chassis was thoroughly reengineered and improvements have improved structural rigidity by 164 percent.
"We are very aware that the predecessor was a little firm, so we spent a lot of time fixing that. But we believe we've got it just right now."

The Fit now negotiates the bumps far better than before, while the ride still remains firm. Media publications who tested the vehicle have commented on there being less understeer than before and how the car feels more like a small sedan than a small minivan. The new suspension improves straight-line stability. While being tested on Honda's high-speed proving ground, media outlets stated the Fit felt as stable at 110 mph (177 km/h) as it did at 50 mph (80 km/h) and that the brakes also offer a high amount of stopping power while the pedal felt firm with little brake fade.

The second-generation Fit was officially unveiled as a 2008 model year vehicle on 17 October 2007 at the Tokyo Motor Show.
Despite early denials of a hybrid variant, Honda announced in May 2008 that it would, in fact, release a hybrid Fit. In his 2008 midyear CEO forecast, Fukui told reporters that, in light of increasing fuel prices, "a Fit hybrid is now starting to make sense".The hybrid variant is expected in early 2010.


Thursday, November 13, 2008

Chevrolet volt,the plug-in concept electric car

The Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in series hybrid vehicle to be produced by General Motors,and expected to be launched as a 2011 model with production currently slated to begin in Q:3 2010.The Volt's propulsion system will be based on GM's new E-Flex platform.

Since the definition of a "hybrid vehicle" as outlined by the Society of Automotive Engineers includes only vehicles having "two or more energy sources directly providing propulsion, either individually or shared" the company has avoided the use of the term "hybrid" when describing the Volt- preferring to call it an electric vehicle equipped with a "range extending" gasoline powered internal combustion engine (ICE) as a genset and therefore dubbed an "Extended Range Electric Vehicle" or EREV. However the combination of an internal combustion engine and electric motors in such a configuration is most often referred to as a series hybrid.
Unlike conventional hybrids, the Volt is designed to operate its propulsion system entirely on electric power. Assuming a full-charge, this electric power will initially be sourced exclusively from its on-board Lithium Ion batteries for up to 40 miles (64 km), a distance capable of satisfying the daily commute of 75% of Americans, which averages around 33 miles (53 km).
After 40 miles, the range of the Volt will need to be extended through the use of a small 3-cyl internal combustion engine which drives a 53kW generator. This arrangement creates a sustaining charge current to the HV batteries and permits them to continue powering the 111kW electric drive motor. This effectively extends the Volt's potential range to as much as 640 miles (1,030 km) on a single tank of fuel. (and which could be potentially extended for longer trips through conventional refueling).
The Volt's 16kWhr Lithium-Ion battery pack can also be fully charged (technically ~85% SOC) by plugging the car into a 120-240VAC residential electrical outlet using the provided SAE J1772 compliant charging cord. No external charging station will be required.

The Volt concept vehicle had four doors with a rear liftgate, and it is capable of carrying four passengers. This is a significant change in design philosophy when compared to the General Motors’ EV1 of the 1990s, which only seated two. The top speed has also been increased on the Volt, from 80 miles per hour (130 km/h) to 120 miles per hour (190 km/h). The battery pack size has also been reduced, from about 300 L in volume in the EV1, to just 100 L in the Volt. The weight of the battery pack in the Volt will also be significantly less (reportedly ~375lbs) , primarily because the Volt will use lithium-ion batteries while the EV1 used heavier lead-acid and nickel metal hydride batteries.

GM executives report that battery technology will have a large impact in determining the success of the car.

To help spur battery research, GM selected two companies to provide advanced lithium-ion batterypacks: Compact Power, which uses manganese oxide based cells made by its parent company, LG Chemical, and Continental Automotive Systems, which uses nanophosphate based cylindrical cells made by A123Systems. However, on August 9, 2007, GM established a more close-knit relationship with A123Systems so that the two companies could co-develop a Volt-specific battery cell. This cell was later unveiled at the EVS23 industry convention in Anaheim, CA. Work with CPI has continued at a rapid pace, and in late 2007 CPI delivered two fully-functional prototype battery packs to GM's testing facilities. On January 31, 2008, A123 and Continental delivered their first prototype to GM's European test facilities. GM will likely use both suppliers for the Volt, although this remains a matter of speculation.

GM expects ten years of life out of the batteries. As of early 2008, they had started extensive battery testing and planned to have 10-year battery results in two years. Batteries were placed in Chevrolet Malibus for further real-world testing.
In February 2008, Andrew Farah, the car's chief engineer, said that design and production was ten weeks behind the original schedule, and that further slippage would mean that the 2010 deadline could not be met.
In April 2008, GM Vice Chairman Bob Lutz said that the first battery test mule was now running with a lithium battery pack.
In July 2008, GM confirmed that a non-turbocharged, 1.4 liter 4-cylinder engine will be used as the range extender, and that the intention is to build it in Flint Michigan.
In August 2008, Andrew Farah, the car's chief engineer, said that the 10 week delay mentioned in February had been "erased" as work on mechanical parts took place during that time. Farah further states the project remains on-track to hit the 2010 deadline saying "at this point, there’s nothing standing in our way of continuing to do what we said we’re going to do."
In early September 2008 Autoblog reports and posts potentially "leaked" photos of the production version of the Chevrolet Volt along with various members of its development team found their way onto the Net Significant changes from the original design concept is met with mixed reviews.
On Sept 16 2008 General Motors officially revealed the production version of the Volt.
Also in September 2008, Bob Lutz indicated on an episode of the Colbert Report that they will offer an optional thermovoltaic solar power roof, allowing the owner to charge the battery by leaving the vehicle in sunlight.
As of August 2008, General Motors Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Rick Wagoner was quoted saying that the price of the Volt in the U.S. market would likely be in "the mid to high 30's." Initially, the GM vice president wanted it at about US$30,000.

The indicated price for the UK market is GBP20,000.

For trips less than about 40 miles (64 km) per charging cycle, the Volt will not use any onboard gas, so assigning a fuel consumption value which only referred to onboard fuel might not be appropriate. Once the Volt's battery has discharged to its lower limit set-point, the Volt's range-extending gasoline engine is expected to get from approximately 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km) to as much as 150 mpg-US (1.6 L/100 km) depending on its "run-time" duty cycles. This is because once the battery has been recharged to an upper limit set-point (by the engine driven 53kW onboard generator), the internal combustion engine will again shut off.Therefore the variables that contribute to the specific duty cycle periods of the internal combustion engine run-times, will need to be factored in to the Volt's final fuel economy rating as determined by the EPA.


Power steering in cars,which is better electronic or hydraulic?

Power steering is a system for reducing the steering effort on vehicles by using an external power source to assist in turning the roadwheels.
Chrysler Corporation introduced the first commercially available power steering system on the 1951 Chrysler Imperial under the name Hydraguide. Most new vehicles now have power steering, owing to the trends toward front wheel drive, greater vehicle mass and wider tires, which all increase the required steering effort. Modern vehicles would be extremely difficult to maneuver at low speeds (e.g., when parking) without assistance.

Most power steering systems work by using a hydraulic system to turn the vehicle's wheels. The hydraulic pressure is usually provided by a gerotor or rotary vane pump driven by the vehicle's engine. A double-acting hydraulic cylinder applies a force to the steering gear, which in turn the pumps employed are of the positive displacement type, the flow rate they deliver is directly proportional to the speed of the engine. This means that at high engine speeds the steering would naturally operate faster than at low engine speeds. Because this would be undesirable, a restricting orifice and flow control valve are used to direct some of the pump's output back to the hydraulic reservoir at high engine speeds. A pressure relief valve is also used to prevent a dangerous build-up of pressure when the hydraulic cylinder's piston reaches the end of the cylinder.

Some modern implementations also include an electronic pressure relief valve which can reduce the hydraulic pressure in the power steering lines as the vehicle's speed increases (this is known as variable assist power steering).

In the DIRAVI system invented by Citroën, the force turning the wheels comes from the car's high pressure hydraulic system and is always the same no matter what the road speed is. As the steering wheel is turned, the wheels are turned simultaneously to a corresponding angle by a hydraulic piston. In order to give some artificial steering feel, there is a separate hydraulically operated system that tries to turn the steering wheel back to centre position. The amount of pressure applied is proportional to road speed, so that at low speeds the steering is very light, and at high speeds it is very difficult to move more than a small amount from the centre position.

As long as there is pressure in the car's hydraulic system, there is no mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the roadwheels. This system was first introduced in the Citroën SM in 1970, and was known as 'VariPower' in the UK and 'SpeedFeel' in the U.S.

While DIRAVI is not the mechanical template for all modern power steering arrangements, it did innovate the now common benefit of speed adjustable steering. The force of the centering device increases as the car's road speed increases.
Electro-hydraulic systems
Electro-hydraulic power steering systems, sometimes abbreviated EHPS, and also sometimes called "hybrid" systems, use the same hydraulic assist technology as standard systems, but the hydraulic pressure is provided by a pump driven by an electric motor instead of being belt-driven by the engine. These systems can be found in some cars by Ford, Volkswagen, Audi, Peugeot, Citroen, SEAT, Skoda, Suzuki, Opel, MINI, Toyota, and Mazda.
Electric Power Steering
Electric Power Steering systems, such as those found on the Audi A3, Honda NSX, Chevrolet Cobalt, Honda S2000, Saturn Vue V6, 2009 Toyota Corolla, Toyota RAV 4, Toyota Prius, Nissan Versa, Suzuki Swift, Hyundai New Accent, and on most Fiat Lancia and Peugeot as also the Peugeot 307 model, use electric components, with no hydraulic systems at all. Sensors detect the motion and torque of the steering column, and a computer module applies assistive power via an electric motor coupled directly to either the steering gear or steering column. This allows varying amounts of assistance to be applied depending on driving conditions. Most notably on Fiat group cars the amount of assistance can be regulated using a button named "CITY" that switches between two different assist curves, while on Volkswagen Group (Volkswagen AG) cars, the amount of assistance is automatically regulated depending on vehicle speed.

In the event of component failure, a mechanical linkage such as a rack and pinion serves as a back-up in a manner similar to that of hydraulic systems.

Reviews in the automotive press often comment that steering systems with electric assist do not have a satisfactory amount of "road feel". Road feel refers to the relationship between the force needed to steer the vehicle and the force that the driver exerts on the steering wheel. Road feel gives the driver the subjective perception that they are engaged in steering the vehicle. The amount of road feel is controlled by the computer module that operates the electric power steering system. In theory, the software should be able to adjust the amount of road feel to satisfy drivers. In practice, it has been difficult to reconcile various design constraints while producing a more pronounced road feel.[citation needed]

The peak power output of the electrical system of a vehicle limits the capability of electric steering assist. A 12 volt electrical system, for example, is limited to about 80 amps of current which, in turn, limits the size of the motor to less than 1 kilowatt. (12.5 volts times 80 amps equals 1000 watts.) This amount of power would be adequate for smaller vehicles. It would probably be considered insufficient for larger vehicles such as trucks and SUVs. There are other types of electrical systems such as the 42 volt system and other variants used for hybrid and electric vehicles. These have greater capacity that enable use of multi kilowatt motors needed for large and mid-size vehicles.

Electric systems have a slight advantage in fuel efficiency (almost 1 MPG) because there is no hydraulic pump constantly running, whether assistance is required or not, and this is the main reason for their introduction. Their other big advantage is the elimination of a belt-driven engine accessory, and several high-pressure hydraulic hoses between the hydraulic pump, mounted on the engine, and the steering gear, mounted on the chassis. This greatly simplifies manufacturing.


Tuesday, November 11, 2008

Hyundai to introduce i10 diesel in 2009

While i10 has been a success story for Hyundai, a diesel would make the car to reach heights. The i10 diesel would come with a 1.1L CRDi engine developing 75PS of peak power at 6000rpm and 155Nm of max torque at 2000rpm. When i10 diesel comes to India, it would take the credit of carrying smallest diesel engine under its hood. i10 diesel is expected to be a fun to drive machine at the same time offering greater mileage. Going by the success of swift diesel, we expect cutomers to make a beeline in Hyundai’s showrooms. i10 diesel would hit the showrooms in 2009.

Hyundai’s new facelifted santro:

Though the santro is put to graveyard in the international market after the launch of i10, it continues to enjoy good response from Indian customers. To make it contemporary and to further boost its volumes Hyundai will launch a facelifted santro sometime in 2009. Expect the changes to be cosmetic as Hyundai is aggressively pushing the i10.


Saturday, November 1, 2008

Toyota iQ concept and small car

The Toyota iQ is a city car unveiled at the 2007 Frankfurt Auto Show. The car was designed by ED2, Toyota's design studio in southern France. Toyota claims it is the world's smallest four-seat car, though one of the passengers must be a small child, unlike the Smart Fortwo which can only seat two people .
The iQ is equipped with miniaturized technology to help free up interior space. The design is intended to place emphasis on low fuel consumption, maneuverability and environmental friendliness. The iQ gets 59 MPG (4.36 l/100km) by european standards. While a panoramic glass sunroof was featured on the concept version of the IQ, it is not included on the production model.
The iQ went on sale in Japan in October 2008 and is believed to be the first model in a series.
In Europe, the iQ will be offered with a choice of two petrol engines and one diesel. CO2 emissions for the 1L 5spd are 99g/km. It has a 3.9 m (13 ft) turning radius. Same engine as Aygo, 998 cc 3 cylinder, 67 bhp (50 kW/68 PS), 67 lb·ft (91 N·m) at 4800 rpm. 0-100 km/h 14.1 seconds.
The iQ has been designed to meet Euro NCAP’s top five-star safety rating.
A newly developed differential allows the iQ to have a more compact engine compartment and front wheels placed at the very corners of the car, with very short overhangs.
The iQ has a centre take-off steering gear, positioned higher in the engine bay. The gear, engine and differential could then be repositioned, giving the car a shorter front overhang.
A flat under-floor fuel tank has allowed shorter rear overhangs to be developed, helping reduce the car’s overall length.
The size of the heater/air conditioning unit has been significantly reduced, without sacrificing performance. As a result, the front passenger area can be moved forwards towards the base of the windscreen, freeing up additional cabin space.
A rear window air bag has been implemented to protect backseat passengers from rear end collisons.
UK sales are scheduled to start in January 2009 with an estimated £10,000 price tag.
The iQ may be brought to the North American market as a Scion. There are also reports from Toyota engineers that the iQ platform will serve as the basis of the next generation Toyota Yaris as well as a possible subcompact hybrid.


Fernando Alonso F1 controversies

At the 2003 European Grand Prix, David Coulthard and McLaren managing director Martin Whitmarsh accused Alonso of giving Coulthard a brake test. After talking to the drivers and viewing telemetry and video data, the FIA Stewards decided that the incident did not warrant any "further judicial action".

At the 2006 Hungarian Grand Prix, Alonso was involved in an incident in which he brake tested Red Bull Racing test driver Robert Doornbos in the second free practice session. The Stewards decided that Alonso’s actions were “unnecessary, unacceptable and dangerous”, and awarded him a one second time penalty to be applied to his fastest lap time in each of the qualifying sessions.

After a separate incident from the same race, when Michael Schumacher was asked whether he thought Alonso deliberately slowed down so that Schumacher had to pass him under red flags in practice Schumacher replied, "You said that, I didn't."

In the 2006 Italian Grand Prix, after stewards ruled Alonso had potentially blocked Felipe Massa in Saturday qualifying and relegated him five places on the starting grid, Alonso stated "I love the sport, love the fans coming here — a lot of them from Spain but I don't consider Formula One like a sport any more".

During the aftermath of the 2007 European Grand Prix Alonso accused Felipe Massa of trying to hit him off the track when he passed him around the outside of turn 5 in the wet. The two had a row in front of the cameras immediately before the podium proceedings. Alonso and Massa later apologised.

In the qualifying for the 2007 Hungarian Grand Prix, while both McLarens were in the pits, Alonso remained stationary in the McLaren pit for a few seconds. This delayed the then provisional pole sitter (and his team mate), Lewis Hamilton long enough to prevent him from getting another 'hot lap' in. Alonso then went on to claim pole. McLaren boss Ron Dennis later said the team had got "out of sequence" when Hamilton did not as agreed allow Alonso past earlier in the qualifying session. He added that Alonso was "under the control of his engineer" when he was waiting in the pit lane. However, Alonso was subsequently given a five-place grid penalty and his McLaren team were docked the 15 constructors' World Championship points they would have earned in the race.

As result of this investigation, it emerged that some people within McLaren, among them Alonso, were aware of confidential information belonging to the Ferrari team. This information was commented on to Alonso by McLaren test driver Pedro de la Rosa who had also received information from McLaren chief designer Mike Coughlan. The email contained text suggesting that Alonso was surprised by the data and doubted its authenticity. According to the "spygate" related email exchanges between Alonso and de la Rosa, it was clear that Alonso knew about Ferrari's pit strategies in the Australian Grand Prix and Bahrain Grand Prix. Alonso finished 2nd and 5th respectively in those races. Ron Dennis told FIA about the case during the Hungaroring GP after alleging that Alonso threatened him to report the team to FIA himself if he wasn't given number one status within the McLaren team, while Alonso declared that false and asked FIA to show evidence of his innocence; FIA then revealed that it had had knowledge of the case thanks to a slip made by Coughlan.


Fernando alonso F1 records and achievements

Youngest World champion: 24 years, 59 days in 2005

Youngest double World Champion: 25 years, 85 days in 2006

Youngest driver and least number of races to score 500 points at the 2008 French grand prix.

Second youngest driver to start from pole position: 21 years, 237 days at the 2003 Malaysian grand prix (behind Sebastian vettel: 21 years 74 days)

Second youngest driver to score a podium finish: 21 years, 237 days at the 2003 Malaysian Grand Prix (behind Sebastian Vettel: 21 years 74 days)

Second youngest winner: 22 years, 26 days at the 2003 Hungarian grand prix (behind Sebastian Vettel: 21 years 74 days)

Second youngest driver to set fastest lap: 21 years, 321 days at the 2003 Canadian Grand Prix (behind Nico rosberg: 20 years, 258 days)

Second driver (after Michael Schumacher) to score 100 or more points for three consecutive seasons (in 2005, 2006 and 2007)

Second highest number of podium positions in a season: 15 in 2005 (behind Michael Schumacher: 17 in 2002)

Second highest number of consecutive podium positions: 15 in 2005-2006 (behind Michael Schumacher: 19 in 2001-2002)

Third youngest driver to start from the front row of the grid: 21 years, 237 days at the 2003 Malaysian Grand Prix (behind Ricardo rodriguez : 19 years, 208 days)

Third highest points total in one season: 134 in 2006 (behind Michael Schumacher: 148 in 2004 and 144 in 2002)

Third youngest to start a race at 19 years, 218 days at the 2001 Australian grand prix (behind Mick thackwell: 19 years, 182 days and Ricardo Rodríguez: 19 years, 208 days)

Winner of the first F1 GP held at night (Singapore grand prix).

Winner of the 800th Grand Prix (2008 Singapore Grand Prix).