Wednesday, December 3, 2008

An electric car from Ford motors

One of the best known car manufacturers worldwide is the Ford Motor Company. As one of the largest car companies, they have been in no rush to get into manufacturing the electric car market. Due to consumer demand, an electric car was manufactured, placed on the market and sold by Ford - a cleaner, environmentally friendly car producing less pollution and no greenhouse gas emissions. It was their first version of an electric car,
called the Think City electric, Ford produced many years ago, and a lot of people were keen to take advantage of this new vehicle. It was pollution free and more energy efficient than a fuel powered car. The United States have very rigid standards about the road safety of vehicles on their road, so the Think City electric didn't meet those strict standards. Ford had to cease production of their first prototype and as a result many of the cars were returned once customers had reached the end of their leases. The cars were then crushed as they couldn't be sold in America. So Ford no longer market the Think City cars, although a few can still be found.
Ford have now implemented and produce hybrid electric cars after much research. These mostly run on battery power, as well as being able to use gasoline power at the touch of a switch. Many of these electric cars can be seen on the roads. As a leading manufacturer of electric cars in the industry, Ford decided to branch out and produce electric vehicles such as Ford trucks, mini-vans and the SUV's, rather than limit their production to just electric cars.
Ford mostly produce electric cars of the hybrid version to meet safety standards, but abroad you can find Ford brand electric cars. Many countries do not have as rigid safety standards, so the electric car can be seen driven by even more people in countries such as England and France.
Some people may be disappointed that Ford had to move from producing electric cars to hybrid vehicles, but as they weren't able to meet the safety standards, there was no choice for the company. As a result it was more cost efficient to produce a more environmentally-friendly vehicle to cope with their customers' demands, than it was to keep the electric cars on the road and try to meet the safety standards.
Ford do continue to listen to their customers and are trying to come up with a suitable model for an electric car. As leaders in the industry, it may only be a matter of time before they can replace the hybrid version with a new exacting Ford brand electric car. Customers will have to wait and see what comes up in the future. With the fast pace of modern technology, it could be possible.

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Monday, December 1, 2008

REVA,the car that runs on a battery

REVAi (REVA G-Wiz i in some markets) is an Indian electric car intended for use as a City car. More REVAs have been produced than any other currently selling electric car and sales are increasing. It is manufactured by the Reva Electric Car Co, in Bangalore, India, currently the world's leading electric car manufacturing company .
REVA is the brand of Reva Electric Car Company, a Bangalore based company formed as a joint venture between Maini Group of India and AEV LLC of California and venture backed by lead US investors Global Environment Fund and Draper Fischer Jurvetson.
The Reva is a small 3-door hatchback measuring 2.6 m (8 ft 6 in) long, 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in) wide and 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) high. It weighs 745 kg (1,640 lb), including its 280 kg (620 lb) lead-acid batteries. The car can accommodate two adults in the front and two children in the rear. The back seats can also fold down to increase cargo space. The maximum passenger and cargo weight is 270 kg (600 lb).

The Reva is intended for city trips and commuting, particularly in congested traffic.

The car may be exported to the USA with a speed limiter for use as a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV).
The current price in the UK (where it is marketed as the G-Wiz i) is approximately £9,500 (€12,000) for the standard model . It qualifies for exemption from the London congestion charge due to being an electrically propelled vehicle.

REVA has a "running cost of just 0.4 rupees/km" (40 paisa/km)
Power comes from eight 6 V, 200 A h, lead acid batteries wired in series to create 48 V. The batteries are located under the front seats.

In the older model, power flowed through a 400 amp motor controller to a DC motor rated at 4.8 kW (6.4 hp). The motor could handle a maximum of 13.1 kW (17.6 hp).

In the 2008 model (REVAi), power flows through a 350 Amp motor controller to a 3-phase AC motor rated at 13 kW (17 hp) peak. It has a "boost" switch that gives 40% extra torque for improved acceleration and hill-climbing and increases the top speed to 80 km/h (50 mph). The range is approximately 80 km (50 mi), but using the heater reduces the range.
Safety concerns
The G-wiz i is currently exempt from most UK crash test rules, because its size allows it to be classed as a quadricycle instead of a car.

The UK Department for Transport found “serious safety concerns” after crashing a G-Wiz at 56 km/h (35mph) into a deformable barrier on 24 April 2007 , which is the normal test for cars. Likewise, a test commissioned by Top Gear Magazine that followed the Euro NCAP crash test specifications found that the occupants would suffer "serious or life-threatening" injuries in a 64 km/h (40mph) crash .

As a result, the current REVAi model (released in January 2008) features a much revised and reinforced chassis that has been successfully crash tested in India by ARAI. It also has an AC drive system which raises the maximum speed to 80 km/h (50 mph). A 25 mph (40 km/h) frontal crash test video of the new model is available on the GoinGreen website.

Reva claims the car has an excellent safety record, saying “In over 40 million km of Reva usage, there has not been a single fatality or serious injury”.
Traction Motor: AC, 13 kW peak power
Charger: Onboard
Charging connector: Cable to standard domestic 230V 13 Amp outlet
Charge time: 8 hours to full power
Pack voltage: 48 V
Battery type: 8 lead-acid batteries
Battery rating: 6 V, 200 A h each
Batteries location: Under front seats
Maximum speed: 80 km/h (50 mph)

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Saturday, November 22, 2008

Car run by Air coming soon to India by TATA motors

A compressed air car is an alternative fuel car that uses a motor powered by compressed air. The car can be powered solely by air, or combined (as in a hybrid electric vehicle) with gasoline/diesel/ethanol or electric plant and regenerative braking.

Tata Motors signed an agreement with MDI to continue research on air powered motors and cars. The time line for bringing their compressed air car, the Tata OneCAT, to market has been said to be in 2008 or 2009. Other companies are also working on air cars.
The compressed air car has been mentioned in Popular Mechanics as being the true car of tomorrow, with a range comparable to an electric vehicle or fuel-cell car. It does not offer zero emissions at the tailpipe without batteries or hydrogen fuel.
Compressed air cars are powered by engines fueled by compressed air, which is stored in a tank at high pressure such as 30 MPa (4500 psi or 300 bar). The storage tank is likely to be made of carbon-fiber in order to reduce its weight while achieving the necessary strength. Instead of mixing fuel with air and burning it to drive pistons with hot expanding gases; compressed air cars use the expansion of compressed air to drive their pistons.
The idea is not new. There have been prototype cars since the 1920s and compressed air has been used in torpedo propulsion as well.
Compressed air is a heavy way of storing fuel, 300 litres (11 cu ft) air at 30 MPa (4,500 psi) contains about 16 kWh of energy (the equivalent of 1.7 liters  of gasoline, assuming a 100% efficiency of the engine). During rupture testing, the tank cracks, but does not break up, producing no splinters or fragments.
All four major manufacturers that are developing air cars have designed safety features into their containers. In contrast to hydrogen's issues of damage and danger involved in high-impact crashes, air, on its own, is non-flammable. It was reported on Discovery's Beyond Tomorrow that on its own, carbon-fiber is brittle and can split under sufficient stress, but creates no shrapnel when it does so. Carbon-fiber tanks safely hold air at a pressure somewhere around 4500psi, which is good when compared with steel tanks.
Emission output
Due to this reason, a compressed air car's emission output can vary both with location and time. Different regions can have very different sources of power, ranging from high-emission power sources such as coal to zero-emission power sources such as wind. A given region can also update its electrical power sources with time, thereby improving or worsening emissions output.

Advantages
The principal advantages of an air powered vehicle are:
* Refueling can be done at home using an air compressor or at service stations. The energy required for compressing air is produced at large centralized plants, making it less costly and more effective to manage carbon emissions than from individual vehicles.

* Reduced vehicle weight is the principal efficiency factor of compressed-air cars. Furthermore, they are mechanically more rudimentary than traditional vehicles as many conventional parts of the engine may be omitted. Some plans include motors built into the hubs of each wheel, thereby removing the necessity of a transmission, drive axles and differentials. A four passenger vehicle weighing less than 800 pounds (360 kg) is a reasonable design goal.
* One manufacturer promises a range of 200 kilometres (120 mi) by the end of the year at a cost of € 1.50 per fill-up.
* Compressed air engines reduce the cost of vehicle production by about 20%, because there is no need to build a cooling system, spark plugs, transmission, axles, starter motor, or mufflers.
* Most compressed air engines do not need a transmission, only a flow control.
* The rate of self-discharge is very low opposed to batteries that deplete their charge slowly over time. Therefore, the vehicle may be left unused for longer periods of time than electric cars.
* Lower initial cost than battery electric vehicles when mass produced. One estimate is €3,000 less.
* Expansion of the compressed air lowers in temperature; this may be exploited for use as air conditioning.
* Compressed-air vehicles emit no pollutants.
* Air turbines, closely related to steam turbines, is a technology over 50 years old. It is simple to achieve with low tech materials. This would mean that developing countries, and rapidly growing countries like China and India, could easily implement a less polluting means of personal transportation than an internal combustion engine automobile.
* Possibility to refill air tank at home (using domestic power socket).
* Lighter vehicles would result in less wear on roads.
* The price of fueling air powered vehicles may be significantly cheaper than current fuels. Some estimates project $3.00 for the cost of electricity for filling a tank.
* Reduction or elimination of hazardous chemicals such as gasoline or battery acids/metals
Disadvantages
Like the modern car and most household appliances, the principle disadvantage is the indirect use of energy. Energy is used to compress air, which - in turn - provides the energy to run the motor. Any conversion of energy between forms results in loss. For conventional combustion motor cars, the energy is lost when oil is converted to usable fuel - including drilling, refinement, labor, storage, eventually transportation to the end-user. For compressed-air cars, energy is lost when electrical energy is converted to compressed air.

* When air expands, as it would in the engine, it cools dramatically (Charles law) and must be heated to ambient temperature using a heat exchanger similar to the Intercooler used for internal combustion engines. The cooling is necessary in order to obtain a significant fraction of the theoretical energy output. The heat exchanger can be problematic. While it performs a similar task to the Intercooler, the temperature difference between the incoming air and the working gas is smaller. In heating the stored air, the device gets very cold and may ice up in colder climates.
* Refueling the compressed air container using a home or low-end conventional air compressor may take as long as 4 hours though the specialized equipment at service stations may fill the tanks in only 3 minutes.
* Early tests have demonstrated the limited storage capacity of the tanks; the only published test of a vehicle running on compressed air alone was limited to a range of 7.22 km.
* A 2005 study demonstrated that cars running on lithium-ion batteries out-perform both compressed air and fuel cell vehicles more than three-fold at same speeds. MDI has recently claimed that an air car will be able to travel 140km in urban driving , and have a range of 80 km with a top speed of 110km/h on highways, when operating on compressed air alone.
Crash Safety Unproven
North American crash testing has not yet been conducted, and skeptics question the ability of an ultralight vehicle assembled with adhesives to produce acceptable crash safety results. Shiva Vencat, vice president of MDI and CEO of Zero Pollution Motors, claims the vehicle would pass crash testing and meet U.S. safety standards. He insists that the millions of dollars invested in the AirCar would not be in vain. To date, there has never been a lightweight, 100-plus mpg car which passed North American crash testing. Technological advances may soon make this possible, but the AirCar has yet to prove itself, and collision safety questions remain.
The key to achieving an acceptable range with an air car is reducing the power required to drive the car, so far as is practical. This pushes the design towards minimizing weight. In a collision the occupants of a heavy vehicle will, on average, suffer fewer and less serious injuries than the occupants of a lighter vehicle. An accident in a 2000 lb (900 kg) vehicle will on average cause about 50% more injuries to its occupants than a 3000 lb (1350 kg) vehicle. Air cars may use low rolling resistance tires, which typically offer less grip than normal tires. In addition, the weight (and price) of safety systems such as airbags, ABS and ESC may encourage manufacturers not to include them.

MDI and Tata Motors
MDI proposes a range of vehicles developed on an identical concept, made up of MiniCATs and CityCATs.
The MDI MiniCat has a range of up to 1000 miles when fitted with an internal combustion engine, but that drops to 30 miles when used in ZEV mode at low speeds in cities. OneCAT, priced in a range ($5,100 to $7,800) within reach of consumers in a developing economy, such as India.
The ultralight bodies of the vehicles would be made of glued-together fiberglass and injected foam, and the aluminum chassis would also be glued, not welded, to simplify manufacturing.
The engine is available in two versions. The Mono Energy air engine is a true air engine. The Dual Energy engines are Internal combustion engines, which use hydrocarbon fuels.
They have licensed 12 factories : 5 in Mexico, 3 in Australia and New Zealand, 1 in South Africa and 3 in France. MDI Andina S.A is going to sell the car in Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Panama. MDI has entered into an agreement with Tata Motors, to produce air cars in India. Zero Pollution Motors will be the first company to manufacture and sell a car in the U.S. called the "Air Car" using MDI technology. ZPM will begin taking reservations in early 2009 for US deliveries in early 2010.

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Tuesday, November 18, 2008

The Hunk is here from Hero Honda

Manufacturer :Hero Honda Motors India Ltd


Production     :October 2007

Class             :150 cc

Engine           :149.2 cc

Top speed     :119 km/h

Power           :14.4 bhp

Torque          :1.3kg/m3

Transmission  :5 speed manual

Suspension     :gas charged bi shock

Brakes           : front single disk & rear drum

Wheelbase     :1340 mm

Fuel capacity  :12.2 litres

Oil capacity    :1litres

Fuel consumption : 55 km/l
Hero Honda Hunk is a 150 cc premium bike launched by Hero Honda Motors India Ltd in October 2007. It is offered in two variants-kick start and self start,priced at Rs 55,000 and Rs 57,000 respectively.(Ex showroom, Delhi )


The Hunk has a stepped seat and rear set foot pegs which gives the rider a sporty stance without sacrificing rider comfort. The vibrations are well controlled.. The bike also features gas charged adjustable rear shock absorbers and a puncture resistant tire.

The Hunk has the 149 cc engine used in Honda Unicorn and Hero Honda CBZ Xtreme with tumble flow technology which the company claims will reduce emissions and fuel consumption. The bike has a top speed of 108 kmph and is capable of doing 0-60 kmph in 5.5 seconds. It has an overall fuel efficiency of 55 kmpl.
 
The Hunk has won the following awards


TopGear Design Awards 2008 - Bike of the Year

NDTV Profit Car India & Bike India Awards - “Viewers’ Choice Award” in Bike category

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Sunday, November 16, 2008

Honda Jazz (india launch) price information

Engine(s) :
* 1.3 L (≈79 cu in) I4 i-VTEC
* 1.5 L (≈92 cu in) I4 i-VTEC
Wheelbase :2500 mm (98.4 in)

Length        :3985 mm (156.9 in)
Width         :1695 mm (66.7 in)
Height         :1525 mm (60 in)
Curb weight : 1,200 kg (2,646 lb)
Fuel capacity :42 L (11 US gal/9 imp gal)

The Honda Fit, also called Honda Jazz, is a five-door hatchback subcompact produced by Honda of Japan, that was first introduced in June 2001. The vehicle is known as the Fit in Japan, China, and in both North and South America. It is called the Jazz in Europe, some parts of Asia, Australia, Oceania, the Middle East, and Africa.
On 17 July 2007, Honda CEO, Takeo Fukui, announced during a press event that the next-generation Honda Fit/Jazz would make its debut in the fall of 2008 in Japan. Events leading up to the introduction of the second-generation Honda Fit slowly unveiled more information about the vehicle. On 28 August, 2007, manufacturer brochures were leaked and indicated that the second generation Honda Fit may feature three trim levels; G, L and RS. It is speculated the G and L trim levels will feature a new 1.3 L (≈79 cu in) i-VTEC engine that makes 98 hp (73 kW), while the 1.5 L (≈92 cu in) i-VTEC will be reserved for the Fit RS and will feature 118 hp (88 kW). On 20 September, 2007, images that appeared to be official promotion photography were leaked onto the internet of the 2009 Honda Fit. Again, the new model has a pronounced one-box shape. The photos also showed a panoramic glass roof.
On 20 August, 2007, Honda released official pictures and specifications of the new Fit.The vehicle was wider, longer, and with a longer wheelbase. Height was unchanged due to mechanical parking in Japan. ULTR magic seats were retained in the second generation, rear headrests were redesigned for better convenience when folding down the seats which now only takes two steps to fold down the whole back row. Growth in dimensions brought more space to the cabin, boot capacity increased from 12.7 to 14.2 cubic feet (0.40 m3). There is also a hidden box under the floor. Although there is no increase in the height of the body, the interior height gained another .3 in, being benefited by the new layout of the platform.

Two engines will be offered in the new Fit. A 1.3 L (≈79 cu in) i-VTEC will produce 98 hp (73 kW) at 6000 rpm and 98 lb·ft (133 N·m) at 4500 rpm. This engine will be offered in both European and Asian markets. A 1.5 L (≈92 cu in) i-VTEC engine will also be offered and have a maximum output of 118 hp (88 kW) at 6000 rpm and 107 lb·ft (145 N·m) at 4800 rpm. This will be the only engine available in the American market. A 5-speed manual, 5-speed automatic (4WD only) and CVT transmission are available.
The chassis was thoroughly reengineered and improvements have improved structural rigidity by 164 percent.
"We are very aware that the predecessor was a little firm, so we spent a lot of time fixing that. But we believe we've got it just right now."


—Hitomi
The Fit now negotiates the bumps far better than before, while the ride still remains firm. Media publications who tested the vehicle have commented on there being less understeer than before and how the car feels more like a small sedan than a small minivan. The new suspension improves straight-line stability. While being tested on Honda's high-speed proving ground, media outlets stated the Fit felt as stable at 110 mph (177 km/h) as it did at 50 mph (80 km/h) and that the brakes also offer a high amount of stopping power while the pedal felt firm with little brake fade.

The second-generation Fit was officially unveiled as a 2008 model year vehicle on 17 October 2007 at the Tokyo Motor Show.
Despite early denials of a hybrid variant, Honda announced in May 2008 that it would, in fact, release a hybrid Fit. In his 2008 midyear CEO forecast, Fukui told reporters that, in light of increasing fuel prices, "a Fit hybrid is now starting to make sense".The hybrid variant is expected in early 2010.

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Thursday, November 13, 2008

Chevrolet volt,the plug-in concept electric car

The Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in series hybrid vehicle to be produced by General Motors,and expected to be launched as a 2011 model with production currently slated to begin in Q:3 2010.The Volt's propulsion system will be based on GM's new E-Flex platform.

Since the definition of a "hybrid vehicle" as outlined by the Society of Automotive Engineers includes only vehicles having "two or more energy sources directly providing propulsion, either individually or shared" the company has avoided the use of the term "hybrid" when describing the Volt- preferring to call it an electric vehicle equipped with a "range extending" gasoline powered internal combustion engine (ICE) as a genset and therefore dubbed an "Extended Range Electric Vehicle" or EREV. However the combination of an internal combustion engine and electric motors in such a configuration is most often referred to as a series hybrid.
Unlike conventional hybrids, the Volt is designed to operate its propulsion system entirely on electric power. Assuming a full-charge, this electric power will initially be sourced exclusively from its on-board Lithium Ion batteries for up to 40 miles (64 km), a distance capable of satisfying the daily commute of 75% of Americans, which averages around 33 miles (53 km).
After 40 miles, the range of the Volt will need to be extended through the use of a small 3-cyl internal combustion engine which drives a 53kW generator. This arrangement creates a sustaining charge current to the HV batteries and permits them to continue powering the 111kW electric drive motor. This effectively extends the Volt's potential range to as much as 640 miles (1,030 km) on a single tank of fuel. (and which could be potentially extended for longer trips through conventional refueling).
The Volt's 16kWhr Lithium-Ion battery pack can also be fully charged (technically ~85% SOC) by plugging the car into a 120-240VAC residential electrical outlet using the provided SAE J1772 compliant charging cord. No external charging station will be required.

The Volt concept vehicle had four doors with a rear liftgate, and it is capable of carrying four passengers. This is a significant change in design philosophy when compared to the General Motors’ EV1 of the 1990s, which only seated two. The top speed has also been increased on the Volt, from 80 miles per hour (130 km/h) to 120 miles per hour (190 km/h). The battery pack size has also been reduced, from about 300 L in volume in the EV1, to just 100 L in the Volt. The weight of the battery pack in the Volt will also be significantly less (reportedly ~375lbs) , primarily because the Volt will use lithium-ion batteries while the EV1 used heavier lead-acid and nickel metal hydride batteries.

GM executives report that battery technology will have a large impact in determining the success of the car.

To help spur battery research, GM selected two companies to provide advanced lithium-ion batterypacks: Compact Power, which uses manganese oxide based cells made by its parent company, LG Chemical, and Continental Automotive Systems, which uses nanophosphate based cylindrical cells made by A123Systems. However, on August 9, 2007, GM established a more close-knit relationship with A123Systems so that the two companies could co-develop a Volt-specific battery cell. This cell was later unveiled at the EVS23 industry convention in Anaheim, CA. Work with CPI has continued at a rapid pace, and in late 2007 CPI delivered two fully-functional prototype battery packs to GM's testing facilities. On January 31, 2008, A123 and Continental delivered their first prototype to GM's European test facilities. GM will likely use both suppliers for the Volt, although this remains a matter of speculation.

GM expects ten years of life out of the batteries. As of early 2008, they had started extensive battery testing and planned to have 10-year battery results in two years. Batteries were placed in Chevrolet Malibus for further real-world testing.
In February 2008, Andrew Farah, the car's chief engineer, said that design and production was ten weeks behind the original schedule, and that further slippage would mean that the 2010 deadline could not be met.
In April 2008, GM Vice Chairman Bob Lutz said that the first battery test mule was now running with a lithium battery pack.
In July 2008, GM confirmed that a non-turbocharged, 1.4 liter 4-cylinder engine will be used as the range extender, and that the intention is to build it in Flint Michigan.
In August 2008, Andrew Farah, the car's chief engineer, said that the 10 week delay mentioned in February had been "erased" as work on mechanical parts took place during that time. Farah further states the project remains on-track to hit the 2010 deadline saying "at this point, there’s nothing standing in our way of continuing to do what we said we’re going to do."
In early September 2008 Autoblog reports and posts potentially "leaked" photos of the production version of the Chevrolet Volt along with various members of its development team found their way onto the Net Significant changes from the original design concept is met with mixed reviews.
On Sept 16 2008 General Motors officially revealed the production version of the Volt.
Also in September 2008, Bob Lutz indicated on an episode of the Colbert Report that they will offer an optional thermovoltaic solar power roof, allowing the owner to charge the battery by leaving the vehicle in sunlight.
As of August 2008, General Motors Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Rick Wagoner was quoted saying that the price of the Volt in the U.S. market would likely be in "the mid to high 30's." Initially, the GM vice president wanted it at about US$30,000.

The indicated price for the UK market is GBP20,000.

For trips less than about 40 miles (64 km) per charging cycle, the Volt will not use any onboard gas, so assigning a fuel consumption value which only referred to onboard fuel might not be appropriate. Once the Volt's battery has discharged to its lower limit set-point, the Volt's range-extending gasoline engine is expected to get from approximately 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km) to as much as 150 mpg-US (1.6 L/100 km) depending on its "run-time" duty cycles. This is because once the battery has been recharged to an upper limit set-point (by the engine driven 53kW onboard generator), the internal combustion engine will again shut off.Therefore the variables that contribute to the specific duty cycle periods of the internal combustion engine run-times, will need to be factored in to the Volt's final fuel economy rating as determined by the EPA.

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Power steering in cars,which is better electronic or hydraulic?

Power steering is a system for reducing the steering effort on vehicles by using an external power source to assist in turning the roadwheels.
Chrysler Corporation introduced the first commercially available power steering system on the 1951 Chrysler Imperial under the name Hydraguide. Most new vehicles now have power steering, owing to the trends toward front wheel drive, greater vehicle mass and wider tires, which all increase the required steering effort. Modern vehicles would be extremely difficult to maneuver at low speeds (e.g., when parking) without assistance.



Most power steering systems work by using a hydraulic system to turn the vehicle's wheels. The hydraulic pressure is usually provided by a gerotor or rotary vane pump driven by the vehicle's engine. A double-acting hydraulic cylinder applies a force to the steering gear, which in turn the pumps employed are of the positive displacement type, the flow rate they deliver is directly proportional to the speed of the engine. This means that at high engine speeds the steering would naturally operate faster than at low engine speeds. Because this would be undesirable, a restricting orifice and flow control valve are used to direct some of the pump's output back to the hydraulic reservoir at high engine speeds. A pressure relief valve is also used to prevent a dangerous build-up of pressure when the hydraulic cylinder's piston reaches the end of the cylinder.


Some modern implementations also include an electronic pressure relief valve which can reduce the hydraulic pressure in the power steering lines as the vehicle's speed increases (this is known as variable assist power steering).

In the DIRAVI system invented by Citroën, the force turning the wheels comes from the car's high pressure hydraulic system and is always the same no matter what the road speed is. As the steering wheel is turned, the wheels are turned simultaneously to a corresponding angle by a hydraulic piston. In order to give some artificial steering feel, there is a separate hydraulically operated system that tries to turn the steering wheel back to centre position. The amount of pressure applied is proportional to road speed, so that at low speeds the steering is very light, and at high speeds it is very difficult to move more than a small amount from the centre position.


As long as there is pressure in the car's hydraulic system, there is no mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the roadwheels. This system was first introduced in the Citroën SM in 1970, and was known as 'VariPower' in the UK and 'SpeedFeel' in the U.S.

While DIRAVI is not the mechanical template for all modern power steering arrangements, it did innovate the now common benefit of speed adjustable steering. The force of the centering device increases as the car's road speed increases.
 
Electro-hydraulic systems
Electro-hydraulic power steering systems, sometimes abbreviated EHPS, and also sometimes called "hybrid" systems, use the same hydraulic assist technology as standard systems, but the hydraulic pressure is provided by a pump driven by an electric motor instead of being belt-driven by the engine. These systems can be found in some cars by Ford, Volkswagen, Audi, Peugeot, Citroen, SEAT, Skoda, Suzuki, Opel, MINI, Toyota, and Mazda.
 
Electric Power Steering
Electric Power Steering systems, such as those found on the Audi A3, Honda NSX, Chevrolet Cobalt, Honda S2000, Saturn Vue V6, 2009 Toyota Corolla, Toyota RAV 4, Toyota Prius, Nissan Versa, Suzuki Swift, Hyundai New Accent, and on most Fiat Lancia and Peugeot as also the Peugeot 307 model, use electric components, with no hydraulic systems at all. Sensors detect the motion and torque of the steering column, and a computer module applies assistive power via an electric motor coupled directly to either the steering gear or steering column. This allows varying amounts of assistance to be applied depending on driving conditions. Most notably on Fiat group cars the amount of assistance can be regulated using a button named "CITY" that switches between two different assist curves, while on Volkswagen Group (Volkswagen AG) cars, the amount of assistance is automatically regulated depending on vehicle speed.


In the event of component failure, a mechanical linkage such as a rack and pinion serves as a back-up in a manner similar to that of hydraulic systems.

Reviews in the automotive press often comment that steering systems with electric assist do not have a satisfactory amount of "road feel". Road feel refers to the relationship between the force needed to steer the vehicle and the force that the driver exerts on the steering wheel. Road feel gives the driver the subjective perception that they are engaged in steering the vehicle. The amount of road feel is controlled by the computer module that operates the electric power steering system. In theory, the software should be able to adjust the amount of road feel to satisfy drivers. In practice, it has been difficult to reconcile various design constraints while producing a more pronounced road feel.[citation needed]

The peak power output of the electrical system of a vehicle limits the capability of electric steering assist. A 12 volt electrical system, for example, is limited to about 80 amps of current which, in turn, limits the size of the motor to less than 1 kilowatt. (12.5 volts times 80 amps equals 1000 watts.) This amount of power would be adequate for smaller vehicles. It would probably be considered insufficient for larger vehicles such as trucks and SUVs. There are other types of electrical systems such as the 42 volt system and other variants used for hybrid and electric vehicles. These have greater capacity that enable use of multi kilowatt motors needed for large and mid-size vehicles.

Electric systems have a slight advantage in fuel efficiency (almost 1 MPG) because there is no hydraulic pump constantly running, whether assistance is required or not, and this is the main reason for their introduction. Their other big advantage is the elimination of a belt-driven engine accessory, and several high-pressure hydraulic hoses between the hydraulic pump, mounted on the engine, and the steering gear, mounted on the chassis. This greatly simplifies manufacturing.

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Tuesday, November 11, 2008

Hyundai to introduce i10 diesel in 2009

While i10 has been a success story for Hyundai, a diesel would make the car to reach heights. The i10 diesel would come with a 1.1L CRDi engine developing 75PS of peak power at 6000rpm and 155Nm of max torque at 2000rpm. When i10 diesel comes to India, it would take the credit of carrying smallest diesel engine under its hood. i10 diesel is expected to be a fun to drive machine at the same time offering greater mileage. Going by the success of swift diesel, we expect cutomers to make a beeline in Hyundai’s showrooms. i10 diesel would hit the showrooms in 2009.

Hyundai’s new facelifted santro:

Though the santro is put to graveyard in the international market after the launch of i10, it continues to enjoy good response from Indian customers. To make it contemporary and to further boost its volumes Hyundai will launch a facelifted santro sometime in 2009. Expect the changes to be cosmetic as Hyundai is aggressively pushing the i10.

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Saturday, November 1, 2008

Toyota iQ concept and small car

The Toyota iQ is a city car unveiled at the 2007 Frankfurt Auto Show. The car was designed by ED2, Toyota's design studio in southern France. Toyota claims it is the world's smallest four-seat car, though one of the passengers must be a small child, unlike the Smart Fortwo which can only seat two people .
The iQ is equipped with miniaturized technology to help free up interior space. The design is intended to place emphasis on low fuel consumption, maneuverability and environmental friendliness. The iQ gets 59 MPG (4.36 l/100km) by european standards. While a panoramic glass sunroof was featured on the concept version of the IQ, it is not included on the production model.
The iQ went on sale in Japan in October 2008 and is believed to be the first model in a series.
In Europe, the iQ will be offered with a choice of two petrol engines and one diesel. CO2 emissions for the 1L 5spd are 99g/km. It has a 3.9 m (13 ft) turning radius. Same engine as Aygo, 998 cc 3 cylinder, 67 bhp (50 kW/68 PS), 67 lb·ft (91 N·m) at 4800 rpm. 0-100 km/h 14.1 seconds.
The iQ has been designed to meet Euro NCAP’s top five-star safety rating.
A newly developed differential allows the iQ to have a more compact engine compartment and front wheels placed at the very corners of the car, with very short overhangs.
The iQ has a centre take-off steering gear, positioned higher in the engine bay. The gear, engine and differential could then be repositioned, giving the car a shorter front overhang.
A flat under-floor fuel tank has allowed shorter rear overhangs to be developed, helping reduce the car’s overall length.
The size of the heater/air conditioning unit has been significantly reduced, without sacrificing performance. As a result, the front passenger area can be moved forwards towards the base of the windscreen, freeing up additional cabin space.
A rear window air bag has been implemented to protect backseat passengers from rear end collisons.
UK sales are scheduled to start in January 2009 with an estimated £10,000 price tag.
The iQ may be brought to the North American market as a Scion. There are also reports from Toyota engineers that the iQ platform will serve as the basis of the next generation Toyota Yaris as well as a possible subcompact hybrid.

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Fernando Alonso F1 controversies

At the 2003 European Grand Prix, David Coulthard and McLaren managing director Martin Whitmarsh accused Alonso of giving Coulthard a brake test. After talking to the drivers and viewing telemetry and video data, the FIA Stewards decided that the incident did not warrant any "further judicial action".

At the 2006 Hungarian Grand Prix, Alonso was involved in an incident in which he brake tested Red Bull Racing test driver Robert Doornbos in the second free practice session. The Stewards decided that Alonso’s actions were “unnecessary, unacceptable and dangerous”, and awarded him a one second time penalty to be applied to his fastest lap time in each of the qualifying sessions.

After a separate incident from the same race, when Michael Schumacher was asked whether he thought Alonso deliberately slowed down so that Schumacher had to pass him under red flags in practice Schumacher replied, "You said that, I didn't."

In the 2006 Italian Grand Prix, after stewards ruled Alonso had potentially blocked Felipe Massa in Saturday qualifying and relegated him five places on the starting grid, Alonso stated "I love the sport, love the fans coming here — a lot of them from Spain but I don't consider Formula One like a sport any more".

During the aftermath of the 2007 European Grand Prix Alonso accused Felipe Massa of trying to hit him off the track when he passed him around the outside of turn 5 in the wet. The two had a row in front of the cameras immediately before the podium proceedings. Alonso and Massa later apologised.

In the qualifying for the 2007 Hungarian Grand Prix, while both McLarens were in the pits, Alonso remained stationary in the McLaren pit for a few seconds. This delayed the then provisional pole sitter (and his team mate), Lewis Hamilton long enough to prevent him from getting another 'hot lap' in. Alonso then went on to claim pole. McLaren boss Ron Dennis later said the team had got "out of sequence" when Hamilton did not as agreed allow Alonso past earlier in the qualifying session. He added that Alonso was "under the control of his engineer" when he was waiting in the pit lane. However, Alonso was subsequently given a five-place grid penalty and his McLaren team were docked the 15 constructors' World Championship points they would have earned in the race.

As result of this investigation, it emerged that some people within McLaren, among them Alonso, were aware of confidential information belonging to the Ferrari team. This information was commented on to Alonso by McLaren test driver Pedro de la Rosa who had also received information from McLaren chief designer Mike Coughlan. The email contained text suggesting that Alonso was surprised by the data and doubted its authenticity. According to the "spygate" related email exchanges between Alonso and de la Rosa, it was clear that Alonso knew about Ferrari's pit strategies in the Australian Grand Prix and Bahrain Grand Prix. Alonso finished 2nd and 5th respectively in those races. Ron Dennis told FIA about the case during the Hungaroring GP after alleging that Alonso threatened him to report the team to FIA himself if he wasn't given number one status within the McLaren team, while Alonso declared that false and asked FIA to show evidence of his innocence; FIA then revealed that it had had knowledge of the case thanks to a slip made by Coughlan.

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Fernando alonso F1 records and achievements

Youngest World champion: 24 years, 59 days in 2005

Youngest double World Champion: 25 years, 85 days in 2006


Youngest driver and least number of races to score 500 points at the 2008 French grand prix.


Second youngest driver to start from pole position: 21 years, 237 days at the 2003 Malaysian grand prix (behind Sebastian vettel: 21 years 74 days)


Second youngest driver to score a podium finish: 21 years, 237 days at the 2003 Malaysian Grand Prix (behind Sebastian Vettel: 21 years 74 days)


Second youngest winner: 22 years, 26 days at the 2003 Hungarian grand prix (behind Sebastian Vettel: 21 years 74 days)


Second youngest driver to set fastest lap: 21 years, 321 days at the 2003 Canadian Grand Prix (behind Nico rosberg: 20 years, 258 days)


Second driver (after Michael Schumacher) to score 100 or more points for three consecutive seasons (in 2005, 2006 and 2007)


Second highest number of podium positions in a season: 15 in 2005 (behind Michael Schumacher: 17 in 2002)


Second highest number of consecutive podium positions: 15 in 2005-2006 (behind Michael Schumacher: 19 in 2001-2002)


Third youngest driver to start from the front row of the grid: 21 years, 237 days at the 2003 Malaysian Grand Prix (behind Ricardo rodriguez : 19 years, 208 days)


Third highest points total in one season: 134 in 2006 (behind Michael Schumacher: 148 in 2004 and 144 in 2002)


Third youngest to start a race at 19 years, 218 days at the 2001 Australian grand prix (behind Mick thackwell: 19 years, 182 days and Ricardo Rodríguez: 19 years, 208 days)


Winner of the first F1 GP held at night (Singapore grand prix).


Winner of the 800th Grand Prix (2008 Singapore Grand Prix).

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Friday, October 24, 2008

Bajaj XCD DTS-Si 125cc sprint coming soon


The XCD 125 sprint motor cycle is the predecessor of the XCD 125.

The XCD Sprint has a self starter.

XCD Sprint has new features like MistiFying Front Fairing, Special Graphics for petrol tank, slim back rail and Purely Different back LED light, Nitrox shocks, lowered handle bars and bigger tyres than the XCD.

Performance

  • 0-60km/h - 8s
  • 0-80km/h - 17s
  • Top speed - 93km/h
  • City fuel economy: 64kmpl
  • Highway fuel economy: 82kmp
Technical specifications
  • Engine: 125cc 4 valve DTS-si
  • Power: 12.5ps@9000rpm
  • Torque: 10.3nm@6500rpm
  • Wheelbase: 1275.00 mm
  • Gears: 4 manual
  • Brakes: Disc
Features
  • Fuel gauge: Digital
  • Self start: True
  • Tachometer: Analogue
  • Stand alarm: Yes
  • Alloys: Yes
  • lighted switches : Yes

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Bajaj platina specifications

Engine and transmission
Displacement:99.30 ccm (6.06 cubic inches)
Engine type:Single cylinder
Stroke:4
Power:8.20 HP (6.0 kW)) @ 7500 RPM
Torque:8.05 Nm (0.8 kgf-m or 5.9 ft.lbs) @ 4500 RPM
Fuel system:Carburettor
weight:113.0 kg (249.1 pounds)
Overall height:1,090 mm (42.9 inches)
Overall length:1,990 mm (78.3 inches)
Overall width:770 mm (30.3 inches)
Wheelbase:1,275 mm (50.2 inches)
Chassis and dimensions
Frame type:Tubular construction
Front suspension:Telescopic
Rear suspension:Hydraulic SNS type
Front brakes:Expanding brake (drum brake)
Rear brakes:Expanding brake (drum brake)
Fuel capacity:11.00 litres (2.91 gallons)
Reserve fuel capacity:2.00 litres (0.53 gallons)

Price: Rs. 46,000

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Honda CBF stunner specifications and price

This is my follow up post from honda stunner.

Displacement:125cc
Power:11bhp
Kerb Weight : 129 kg
Wheelbase
: 1271mm
Fuel tank capacity: 10 litres

Tubeless tyres
Front 80/100-17 and Rear: 100/90-77
Front Brakes: 240mm Disc or 130mm Drum
Rear Brake: 130mm drum

Starting: Kickstart / Electric
5 speed transmission
Trip meter

CBF Stunner motorcycles will be available in three versions -
Self Disc Alloy (Price Rs 51,655)
Self Drum Alloy (Price: Rs 49,820) and
Kick Drum Alloy (Price: Rs 47,070)(all prices ex-showroom,delhi).
Honda is offering the Stunner CBF in red, black, metallic silver and yellow colours.

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Thursday, October 23, 2008

JANA GANA MANA,the best national anthem in the world

.............this is what is circulating through mails and blogs quite a bit these days.But is this true?If it is,really feel proud to be an indian.If it is not,does it matter?
There is no official news from any media,electronic or print.If there was any such message from UNESCO our media surely would not be sitting silently,Isn't it?

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Wednesday, October 22, 2008

Cruise control system in indian cars

Cruise control (sometimes known as speed control or autocruise) is a system that automatically controls the rate of motion of a motor vehicle. The driver sets the speed and the system will take over the throttle of the car to maintain the same speed.

New corolla altis with cruise control
How does it work?
In modern designs, the cruise control may need to be turned on before use — in some designs it is always "on" but not always enabled, others have a separate "on/off" switch, while still others just have an "on" switch that must be pressed after the vehicle has been started. Most designs have buttons for "set", "resume", "accelerate", and "coast" functions. Some also have a "cancel" button. Alternatively, tapping the brake or clutch pedal will disable the system, a required feature to prevent the vehicle from accelerating against braking as it attempts to maintain speed. The system is operated with controls easily within the driver's reach, usually with two or more buttons on the steering wheel spokes or on the edge of the hub like those on Honda vehicles, on the turn signal stalk like in some General Motors vehicles or on a dedicated stalk like those found in Toyota and Mercedes-Benz vehicles. Early designs used a dial to set speed choice.
The driver must bring the car up to speed manually and use a button to set the cruise control to the current speed. The cruise control takes its speed signal from a rotating driveshaft, speedometer cable, wheel speed sensor or from the engine's RPM. Most systems do not allow the use of the cruise control below a certain speed (normally 35 mph/55 km/h) to discourage use in city driving. The car will maintain that speed by pulling the throttle cable with a solenoid or a vacuum driven servomechanism.
All systems must be turned off both explicitly and automatically, when the driver hits the brake or clutch. Cruise control often includes a memory feature to resume the set speed after braking and a coast feature to reset the speed lower without braking. When the cruise control is in effect, the throttle can still be used to accelerate the car, but once the accelerator is released the car will then slow down until it reaches the previously set speed.
On the latest vehicles fitted with electronic throttle control, cruise control can be easily integrated into the vehicle's engine management system. Cruise controls currently being developed include the ability to automatically reduce speed when the distance to a car in front, or the speed limit decreases. This is an advantage for those driving in unfamiliar areas.

Advantages and disadvantages

Some of those advantages include:


  • Its usefulness for long drives across sparsely populated roads. This usually results in better fuel efficiency.

  • Some drivers use it to avoid unconsciously violating speed limits. A driver who otherwise tends to unconsciously increase speed over the course of a highway journey may avoid a speeding ticket. Such drivers should note, however, that a cruise control may go over its setting on a downhill which is steep enough to accelerate with an idling engine

However, cruise control can also lead to accidents due to several factors, such as



  • The lack of need to maintain constant pedal pressure, which can help lead to accidents caused by highway hypnosis or incapacitated drivers; future systems may include a dead man's switch to avoid this.

  • When used during inclement weather or while driving on wet or snow- and/or ice-covered roads, the vehicle not equipped with Electronic Stability Control could go into a skid. Stepping on the brake — such as to disengage the cruise control — often results in the driver losing control of the vehicle

Driving over "rolling" terrain, with gentle up and down portions, can usually be done more economically (using less fuel) by a skilled driver viewing the approaching terrain, by maintaining a relatively constant throttle position and allowing the vehicle to accelerate on the downgrades and decelerate on upgrades, while reducing power when cresting a rise and adding a bit before an upgrade is reached. Cruise control will tend to overthrottle on the upgrades and retard on the downgrades, wasting the energy storage capabilities available from the inertia of the vehicle. The inefficiencies from cruise control can be even greater relative to skilled driving in hybrid vehicles.
Many countries establish that it is illegal to drive within city limits with the cruise control feature activated.


Adaptive cruise control system:


Some modern vehicles have adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems, which is a general term meaning improved cruise control. These improvements can be automatic braking or dynamic set-speed type controls.
Automatic Braking Type: The automatic braking type use either a radar or laser setup to allow the vehicle keep pace with the car it is following, slow when closing in on the vehicle in front and accelerating again to the preset speed when traffic allows. Some systems also feature forward collision warning systems, which warns the driver if a vehicle in front - given the speed of both vehicles - gets too close (within the preset headway or braking distance).

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Monday, October 20, 2008

what is a spoiler?

A spoiler is an automotive aerodynamic device whose intended design function is to 'spoil' unfavorable air movement across a body of a vehicle in motion. Spoilers are often fitted to race and high-performance sports cars, although they have become common on passenger vehicles, as well. Some spoilers are added to cars primarily for styling purposes and have either little aerodynamic benefit or even make the aerodynamics worse.

Spoilers for automobiles are often incorrectly confused with, or even used interchangeably with, wings. Automotive wings are devices whose intended design is to generate downforce as air passes around them, not simply disrupt existing airflow patterns.
How does it operate?
Spoilers generally function by disrupting or diffusing the airflow passing over and around a moving vehicle as it passes around the spoiler. This is accomplished by increasing the amount of turbulence flowing over the shape, "spoiling" the laminar flow and providing a cushion for the laminar boundary layer. Applications are varied, including using body panels, or most typically by adding an extruding attachment.
Occasionally spoilers are added solely for appearance with no thought towards practical purpose.

Spoilers in cars

The main design goal of a spoiler in passenger vehicles is to reduce drag and increase fuel efficiency. While many often imitate wings and airfoils, these serve mostly decorative purposes. Passenger vehicles can be equipped with front and rear spoilers. Front spoilers, found beneath the bumper, are mainly used to direct air flow away from the tires to the underbody where the drag coefficient is less. Rear spoilers, which modify the transition in shape between the roof and the rear and the trunk and the rear, act to minimize the turbulence at the rear of the vehicle.


Sports cars are most commonly seen with front and rear spoilers. Even though these vehicles typically have a more rigid chassis and a stiffer suspension to aid in high speed maneuverability, a spoiler can still be beneficial. This is because many vehicles have a fairly steep downward angle going from the rear edge of the roof down to the trunk or tail of the car. At high speeds, air flowing across the roof tumbles over this edge, causing air flow separation. The flow of air becomes turbulent and a low-pressure zone is created, increasing drag and instability . Adding a rear spoiler makes the air "see" a longer, gentler slope from the roof to the spoiler, which helps to delay flow separation. This decreases drag, increases fuel economy, and helps keep the rear window clean.

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Saturday, October 18, 2008

TATA Indica electric version

Electric versions of the Indica is undergoing testing. The electric version will utilize Lithium ion batteries for higher power. Once charged, the car can travel upto 200 kilometers. The car is expected to roll out by the end of 2008.
The company has indicated that the electric Indica would be launched locally in India in about 2010, without disclosing the price. The vehicle would be launched in Norway in 2009.
Tata Motors' UK subsidiary, Tata Motors European Technical Centre, has bought a 50.3% holding in electric vehicle technology firm Miljø Grenland/Innovasjon of Norway for US$1.93 M, which specialises in the development of innovative solutions for electric vehicles, and plans to launch the electric Indica hatchback in Europe next year . Electrovaya is partnering with Tata Motors and Miljø Grenland/Innovasjon to manufacture batteries and electric cars using Electrovaya’s Lithium Ion SuperPolymer battery technology.

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Thursday, October 16, 2008

Bajaj XCD DTS-Si

Engine :125 cc single, twin spark
Power :9.53 PS (9 hp/7 kW) @ 7,000 rpm
Torque :10.85 N·m (8 lb·ft) @ 5,000 rpm
Suspension :Telescopic front fork, dual rear shock
Brakes :Drum type
Wheelbase :1275 mm (50.2 in)
Fuel capacity :8 litres

The Bajaj XCD 125 DTS-Si is a motorcycle manufactured in India by Bajaj Auto.
Though Bajaj Auto claims that this bike gives 109 kmpl mileage under test conditions, it might actually give around 70 kmpl.
It costs around Rs.47,189 in Bangalore (on-road price).
Pros:
Digital Speedometer
Alloy wheels
LED tail lamp
Less weight
Stylish and good looking
Good mileage
Cons:
No Disc Brakes
LED tail lamp is small

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Bajaj platina price info


For specifications and price information visit this post
Bajaj Platina is a 100 CC Motorcycle built by Bajaj Auto. It debuted in 2006.
Bajaj Platina is the 100cc bike from Bajaj Auto to take on TVS Star City. The cheaper version will come for Rs 34,500, while the higher version of Bajaj Platina will cost Rs 36,000 ( ex-showroom prices, Delhi). Bajaj hopes to sell about 75,000-80,000 units of Platinas a month.
The Bajaj Platina is based on the CT-100, but with a revised gearbox, fresher body panels and optional alloy wheels. Bajaj also offers the Bajaj Discover 112 in the entry level segment. The entry-level segment is being strengthened by the arrival of the Bajaj Platina. The company will use it new Pantnagar plant to build the Platina.
It is very much visible that all the body panels, fairings, electronics of this bike are borrowed from the successful Bajar Wind 125 Worldbike. It is debated whether it was a wise decision to cease the productions of Wind 125 & Caliber 115. Both were highly successful machines & were the top selling models in their respective segment when the production was cut. Both had exceptionally efficient & smooth Kawasaki K-Tec engines. The smooth engines were quite uncommon in India & were well received by the customers. The K-Tec engines are no longer in use & Bajaj instead uses indigenously developed powerplants.
Bajaj Auto has also announced plans to launch a dual-fuel bike which will run on CNG/LPG as well as petrol. The bike is under development.

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Friday, October 10, 2008

Hero honda CBZ reviews and price

The Hero Honda CBZ, launched in early 1999 by Hero Honda Motors India Ltd, was the first sports oriented 4-stroke bike. Sporting an original Honda 156.8 cc engine, it made good 12.8PS of power which was sufficient enough to propel it to a Speedo indicated 130 km/h. The styling was out of the exemplary. The bike looked very sporty and was aesthetically perfect. Sufficient mid-range torque ensured a 0-60 km/h (0-40 mph) in just 5 seconds.
The over-square engine, that met Euro1, was fed by a Keihin slide type carburetor with accelerator pump for better pick-up. It featured a single front disc brake, which was a first in India. It also featured the first 5-speed gearbox on a 4-stroke bike. It had excellent acceleration figures, for a relatively heavy 130 kg Kerb weight. The handling of this bike was the highlight. It was capable of doing corners at relatively high speeds without hiccups.
The Latest edition to the CBZ family is the New sporty CBZ X-treme It has LED based Tail cum brake light which too is becoming a standard feature in Indian made bikes after its introduction in Bajaj Pulsar in 2006. In addition to this the alloy wheels also give a great stylish looks. The mileage is not that bad either which is one of the biggest shortcomings in the case of Bajaj Pulsar.
Features
Acceleration It makes use of a larger spring operated nozzle to provide a richer fuel air mixture into the engine. Thus its mileage ranges from 45 to 53 km/lt in city, which is at part with other 150cc bikes in India.
Air Injection System: Injects fresh air into the exhaust port, to meet the emission norms. CBZ comes with a company fitted sponge based filter which is more than sufficient for Indian environments. People have also admitted performance gains by fitting a 3rd party custom filters like K&N.
Gear Box: Equipped with five gears and a 156 cc engine that generates 12.8 bhp power. It takes 0 - 60 km/h in 5 seconds and touch the top speed of about 125 km/h.
CBZ was one of the first Indian bikes to feature a 5-speed gearbox (the earlier being RD350 with a six speed box and Yamaha RX-135).
Specifications:
Engine: 4-stroke, single cylinder, air - cooled, SOHC
Displacement: 156.7 cc
Clutch Type: Manual
Clutch Primary: -
Clutch Secondary: Multi-plate wet
Transmission: 5-speed 1 down 4 up
Final Drive: Roller chain
Ignition: Electronic
Starting: Kick starter/ Electric
Frame: Tubular single cradle
Suspension: (Front )Telescopic hydraulic fork
Suspension: (Rear ) Swing arm with hydraulic damper- 5-step adjustment
Dimensions: (L*W*H) 2100*755*1130 mm
Wheel Base: 1335 mm
Ground Clearance: 160 mm
Kerb Weight: 138 kg/ 142 kg
Tyres:Front/Rear: 2.75*18-42P/100/90*18-56P
Max. Power: 12.8 PS@8000rpm
Max. Torque: 12.6Nm @6500rpm
Max.Speed: 113 km/h (speedo reading:135km/h)
Fuel Tank: 12.5 1tr (2.5 ltr reserve)
The model went unchanged more or less for 5 years and in 2004, got an electric self-start, a new sticker-job and name – CBZ *. Many enthusiasts feel that the older version of the CBZ looked much better than the newer one. (The newer version eventually led the bike to its doom). The engine helped make the bike a legend. The CBZ (pronounced as CBZee) is a status symbol.
The bike was discontinued after 2005 September, due to low demand. Competition was eating away its share. The CBZ was significantly costlier than its competitors due to the high import content which were making low-quality ingeniously designed bikes. The CBZ had disc brake and electric start whereas the competition was offering indigenous bikes with electric start, disk brake, alloys, gas charged shocks etc. This huge price difference led to the loss in demand for the CBZ and ultimately the model was discontinued. Also, the fuel efficiency about 46 kmpl was slightly less than the competitors (49 kmpl) with fuel efficiency being a major concern in a developing country like India.
It gave way to promote Honda's Unicorn and Hero Honda's Achiever which share a common engine platform.
CBZ X-treme
Its the 2007 model of CBZ. It has a 150 cc engine and new looks. But old CBZ owners and fans are happy with the new CBZ Xtreme (mainly with its looks-its front fairing). The bike is however worthy of the CBZ name due to its pickup and performance.In fact, CBZ xtreme is a powerful 150cc bike in the country with 14.4Ps.
According to the mechanics its a beefed up version of Hero Honda Achiever which was again a modded version of Hero Honda Ambition. There has been a big revolt from CBZ fans in online forums as it was the most awaited bike during the 2006-2007 period. (www.xbhp.com)
ENGINE Type: Air cooled, 4 - stroke single cylinder OHC
Displacement: 149.2 c.c
Maximum Power : 9.8 KW ( 13.31 ps) @ 8500 rpm
Maximum Torque : 12.80 N-m @ 6500 rpm
Bore x Stroke: 57.3 x 57.8 mm
Compression Ratio : 9.1 :1
Idle speed: 1400 rpm
Ignition: AMI - Advanced Microprocessor Ignition System
TRANSMISSION Clutch : Multiplate wetGear box: 5 Speed constant mesh
Dimension & weight:
Overall height: 1145 mm
Overall length :2080 mm
Overall Width: 765 mm
Wheelbase: 1325 mm
Ground Clearance: 145 mm
Kerb weight: 143 kg
Fuel Tank Capacity: 12.3 ltrs

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TVS Flame reviews and price info

Manufacturer :TVS Motors
Engine :124.8 cc ccvti 3 valve four stroke
Power:10.5 bhp@7500rpm
Torque:10Nm @ 6000rpm
Transmission:4 speed
Suspension:Telescopic front,5 step adjustable rear shock
Brakes:130 mm drum front & rear (front disc optional)
Wheelbase:1320 mm
Dimensions:L 2030 mm W 760 mm H 1070 mm
Fuel capacity:7.5 litres
TVS Flame is a 125 cc motorcycle developed by TVS Motor Company , one of the leading two-wheeler manufacturers in India . TVS Flame was launched in the Indian market in January 2008.
TV Sundram Iyengar and Sons Limited (TVS) is the holding company for the TVS Group of companies engaged in the manufacturing of almost all kinds of automotive components, two wheelers and a few other industrial products. They are also into the financial services sector. TVS was founded by T. V. Sundram Iyengar in 1911.
It is the only automotive manufacturer in India to get the prestigious Deming Prize. This prize is "given to organizations or divisions of organizations that have achieved distinctive performance improvement through the application of TQM in a designated year."
The market scenario
With the no frills, ultra utilitarian 100cc bike scenario, the happening 125cc bike arena gains prime focus. The 125cc have evolved from being a compromise to posing a serious threat to the 100cc, These bikes are high on style, handling and features parameters while proving economical in terms of cost and efficiency. The new 125s like the TVS Flame are even more upmarket and tech laden.
After studying the Indian consumers’ mindset, TVS Motor decided to fulfill their requirements by providing them a fully loaded bike; a motorcycle that could provide style, look and fantastic mileage. Keeping this in mind TVS present one of the best looking Indian motorcycle in the125cc category This is the first bike in its segment which has this kind of innumerable styling options.
Flame’s style is really very well advanced. It’s unique design and finishing quality has already set a new benchmark in the 125cc bike segment. Its style is highly innovative and above in 125cc segments, competes with high end bikes. TVS Flame has applied most talked of, futuristic aerodynamic Delta Edge Style, inspired by Fighter Jets Delta wing design. Flame has well defined, eye catching triangular shaped head lamps, Delta Edge trafficators, dual lens tail-lamp and a sporty Delta Edge exhaust. Its head lamps, they are large in shape and well crafted too, it looks like pointing down arrow. Its distinctive triangular shaped silencer adds passion to its style. TVS has which successfully applied the Aero Dynamic Delta Edge theme to the entire bike.
To compete with high end bikes Flame has used a new analog-cum-digital instrument cluster, with a LCD display showing the fuel gauge, odometer and ‘Intelligent Mileage Indicator’, Flame’s design has been put forward by its trafficators, they are placed superbly at the boomeranged shaped fuel tank. These trafficatores are easily visible for oncoming traffic and beautifies the fuel tank.
TVS has used dual tone colour theme for Flame. Its stickers are trendy and very attractive. At the rear, a new design matt black alloy grab rail and a dual lens tail lamp attempt to add further uniqueness to the Flame’s looks.
The seating position having good deep knee recesses, its lean fuel tank provides comfortable posture even for tall riders. TVS Flames uses a single down tube frame with a box –section swing arm. For providing maneuverability, handling Indian road conditions TVS Flame has used wheelbase of 1,320 mm and ground clearance of 165mm. The suspension set-up for the Flame includes telescopic hydraulic fork at the front and 5-step adjustable twin tubes and gas-filled absorbers at the rear. As for the brakes, 130mm drum brakes are standard both in the front and the rear, rear discs are offered as an option. With a refined engine and other NVH dampeners such as rubber mounts and handlebar end weights, vibrations in the Flame have been contained well, though at speeds of over 75 kmph
First Time Features
TVS Motor Company launched the Flame in January 2008 with a host of first time features (on a 125 cc Indian bike).
The 'Delta-Edge' Design: According to TVS Motor Company, the design of TVS Flame was inspired by the delta wing design found in the latest fighter jets. The Flame sports the first ever delta-edge shaped head lamps, embedded trafficators, triangular exhaust and dual lens tail-lamps.
The 3-Valve CCVT-i Engine: The new 125cc, 3 valve Controlled Combustion Variable Timing (CCVT-i) engine is designed to deliver 10.5 bhp @ 8250 rpm.
Intelligent Mileage Indicator : The Flame’s digital console has the first ever Intelligent Mileage Indicator (IMI) - that keeps us informed about the real time mileage as we move on.
Delta-Edge Head Lamps and Trafficators : Razor-sharp multi-reflector head lamp and triangular shaped exhaust goes well with the Flame’s delta-edge styling.
Delta-Edge Exhaust : The Flame is the first Indian bike to have a stylish, triangular shaped delta-edge exhaust.
Gadget Boot : Gadget Boot is a spacious on-tank storage space designed to accommodate cans, i-pods, goggles and mobile chargers etc.
Technology
What keeps the Flame good going is its revolutionary CCVT-I (Controlled Combustion Variable Timing – Intelligent) Engine. CCVT-i engine comes with three valves; two inlets and one exhaust.Whenever the rider requires extra power, additional fuel / air mixture goes in through the second valve, giving out extra power to the bike. The CCVT-I engine also has a deceleration cut-off, to ensure there is no fuel wastage, when the vehicle is decelerating.
In the Flame's CCVT-i engine, the lower port is cleverly placed towards the side to generate swirl inside the combustion chamber for optimum fuel efficiency. Under more than half throttle conditions, the secondary port placed at an angle towards the top, is fed by the carb and introduces the charge with a tumble motion for sheer performance.

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Saturday, October 4, 2008

Mitsubishi hindustan motors pajero

The Mitsubishi Pajero is a sport utility vehicle manufactured by JV of Mitsubishi and Hindustan Motors in India. It was named after Leopardus pajeros, the Pampas Cat which inhabits the Patagonia plateau region in southern Argentina. However, because pajero is a slang term for "wanker" in the Spanish language, alternative names have been adopted for certain overseas markets. It is known as the Mitsubishi Montero (meaning "mountain warrior") in Spain, India, and the Americas (except Brazil), and as Mitsubishi Shogun in the United Kingdom.
Thanks to their success, the Pajero, Montero and Shogun names were also applied to other, mechanically unrelated models, such as the Pajero Mini kei car, the Pajero Junior and Pajero iO/Pinin mini SUVs, and the Mitsubishi Pajero/Montero/Shogun Sport.


The third generation Pajero hit the Japanese Domestic Market in 1999, whilst it was made available to other markets in late 2000 as a 2001 model. The vehicle was completely redesigned, inside and out and now has a lower, wider stance. A lower center of gravity meant the Pajero had better on-road handling manners, whilst the new body has over three hundred percent more torsional rigidity. The biggest change to bring this about is that the Pajero now utilizes a unibody construction, as opposed to the previous body-on-frame (box-ladder). This also helped give the Pajero a longer suspension stroke. The fuel tank was also strategically placed between the axles for better safety.
The SS4 system was also further refined, as bevel gears were replaced with planetary ones. This meant the front-to-rear torque setting ranged from 33 to 67, with the ability to adjust to 50/50 depending on surface conditions. The system was also made fully electronic, which meant the vehicle didn’t have to be in gear to switch between drive modes. After all the upgrades, the system was renamed to Super Select 4WD II (SS4-II).
Alongside rack and pinion steering (as opposed to the recirculating ball system on previous generations), the Pajero also offered a choice of three transmissions; a five speed manual, a four speed INVECS-II automatic and a five speed INVECS-II tiptronic.
An all-new 3.8 Liter SOHC 24-valve V6 powerplant was also introduced on this generation. This engine utilizes an Electronic Throttle Valve (ETV), to deliver a refined cruising power with power to spare for offroad ventures.
The third generation was introduced on August 2, 1999 and is scheduled to be replaced by the Autumn of 2006, having been restyled in 2003. This was the most luxurious of the three generations, moving to a more upscale segment to compete against the Land Rover Discovery, but more importantly, to counter its home rival Toyota Land Cruiser's growth. The 3.0 L engine's power was decreased to 130 kW (175 hp/177 PS), and the 3.5 L engine was given gasoline direct injection, increasing power to 162 kW (217 hp/220 PS) in the Japanese market (export versions kept the standard EFI engine, now with 149 kW (200 hp/203 PS). The 2.8 L Diesel was retained only for developing markets, and was replaced by a new 16-valve direct injection engine, with 3.2 L and 120 kW (161 hp/163 PS).
In the North American market, the 3.5 L engine was replaced for 2003 by a more powerful 3.8 L unit, with 160 kW (215 hp/218 PS). This engine was later made available to a few export markets such as South America and Australia, whilst it replaced the GDI V6 in the Japanese lineup in 2005. The short wheelbase model is not available in North Americ, where the Montero is the only SUV in Mitsubishi's lineup with standard four wheel drive. Faced with falling sales, the Montero was pulled from the US market after the 2006 model year.

The fourth generation was introduced at the Paris Motor Show on September 30, 2006. New interior and exterior styling was accompanied by enhanced safety with dual-stage SRS front airbags as well as new side-impact and curtain airbags. The Super-Select 4WD II system was retained but is complemented by an improved Active Stability & Traction Control (ASTC) system and electronic brakeforce distribution.
The engines were upgraded with the 3.2 L Diesel now producing 125 kW (167 hp/170 PS) and the 3.8 L V6 gaining MIVEC variable valve timing to boost power to 184 kW (247 hp/250 PS). Both engines meet new Euro IV emissions standards. The 3.0 L V6 is retained for the Japanese and GCC markets.

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Mitsubishi outlander in india price @ 2000000

The Mitsubishi Outlander is a compact crossover SUV manufactured by Japanese automaker Mitsubishi Motors. It was originally known as the Mitsubishi Airtrek when it was introduced in Japan in 2001, and was based on the Mitsubishi ASX concept vehicle exhibited at the 2001 North American International Auto Show. The ASX (Active Sports Crossover) represented Mitsubishi's approach to the industry wide XUV trend for retaining the all-season and off-road abilities offered by a high ground clearance and four-wheel drive, while still offering car-like levels of emissions, economy and size.
The original Airtrek name was chosen to "describe the vehicle’s ability to transport its passengers on adventure-packed journeys in a 'free-as-a-bird' manner", and was "coined from Air and Trek to express the idea of footloose, adventure-filled motoring pleasure." The Outlander nameplate which replaced it evoked a "feeling of journeying to distant, unexplored lands in search of adventure."
The Outlander was given a modified front grille and headlights which increased the overall length by approximately 130 mm (five inches) when it was introduced in 2003, and the two models were manufactured in parallel thereafter.
The second generation of the vehicle was introduced in 2005 and all markets including Japan adopted the Outlander name. It was built on the company's GS platform, and used various engines developed by Mitsubishi, Volkswagen and PSA Peugeot Citroën. PSA's Citroën C-Crosser and Peugeot 4007, which are manufactured by Mitsubishi in Japan, are badge engineered versions of the Outlander.


On October 17, 2005, Mitsubishi launched the second generation model, dropping the Airtrek in Japan in favour of adopting the global name. It features a new DOHC 2.4 L 16-valve MIVEC engine; INVECS-III continuously variable transmission (CVT), Mitsubishi's AWC system which features electronically controlled four wheel drive and stability control, on a stretched Mitsubishi GS platform. The North American version, powered by a newly designed 6B31 3.0 L V6 SOHC MIVEC was shown in April 2006 at the New York Auto Show prior to its release in October the same year.
In its home market of Japan it was the best-selling SUV from October 2005 to March 2006, while in the U.S. market it achieved 1,694 and 2,108 sales in November and December 2006, the first two full months it was available; Mitsubishi ultimately hopes for at least 4,000 sales per month in the United States.
At the 2007 SEMA Show, the company displayed a Mitsubishi Evolander concept, powered by a 224 kW (300 PS) supercharged version of the vehicle's 6B31 V6 engine and equipped with suitably uprated suspension, brakes, wheels/tires, body kit and interior. It is mooted that an Outlander Ralliart would closely mimic the mechanical specifications of this concept, although there is no indication that production has been approved.
The Outlander, which features Mitsubishi's RISE safety body, received a four star rating from the Euro NCAP car safety performance assessment programme.
Increased demand for the new Mitsubishi Lancer, and the consequent effects on the capacity of the company's Mizushima production facility, have obliged Mitsubishi to reassess production of the Outlander. In September 2007, they announced that from 2008, production of European market Outlanders would be transferred from Nagoya to its NedCar plant in the Netherlands, while the Citroën C-Crosser and Peugeot 4007 would have their production transferred from Mizushima to Nagoya.
In Chile, where the first generation is still sold as Outlander, the new model is badged Outlander K2.

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Friday, October 3, 2008

Maruti Suzuki Grand vitara

Engine(s)
1.6L 16V I4, 2.0L V6, 2.5L V6, 2.0L Turbodiesel I4
Transmission(s)
5-speed manual,4-speed automatic
Wheelbase
2-Door: 86.6 in (2200 mm)4-Door: 97.6 in (2479 mm)
Length
4-Door: 164.5 in (4178 mm)1999-2001 4-Door: 163 in (4140 mm)
Width
2-Door: 67.3 in (1709 mm)2002-05 4-Door: 70.1 in (1781 mm)1999-2001: 70 in (1778 mm)
Height
2002-05 4-Door AWD: 67.8 in (1722 mm)2002-05 4-Door 2WD: 67.3 in (1709 mm)2-Door: 66.5 in (1689 mm)1999-2001 4-Door AWD: 68.5 in (1740 mm)1999-2001 4-Door 2WD: 68 in (1727 mm)
Fuel capacity
16.9 US gallons (64.0 L/14.1 imp gal)

The Suzuki Grand Vitara is a compact SUV, namely a long-wheelbase version of the Vitara, produced by the Japanese automaker Suzuki since 1999. It was facelifted in 2002 and 2004, and redesigned in 2006. A rebadged version was sold in North America by General Motors as the Chevrolet Tracker. The Tracker is sold in Latin America, but Mexico, as Chevrolet Grand Vitara. In Mexico, Grand Vitara and Tracker are different vehicles, sold by Suzuki and Chevrolet respectively.

As of 2003, the smaller Suzuki Vitara has been withdrawn from the North American market. Sales were slow, with just 4,860 sold in 2004 for the United States. In Canada, sales were strong. All North American Vitaras were built at CAMI Automotive in Ingersoll, Ontario, while the North American Grand Vitaras were built in Japan, where it is the Suzuki Escudo. The 2006 model has had a structural redesign with a new ladder-boxed chassis integrated into a unibody construction. In India, it is sold as a Maruti.
The 2001 model Suzuki Grand Vitara comes standard as a 2.0 Liter 4WD vehicle in New Zealand. The 2005 and onwards Grand Vitara is sold in Ecuador by Chevrolet, yet it still retains it's Suzuki badges.
The vehicle is also mass produced in Iran by Iran Khodro Manufacturing Co.

The model was replaced in the fall of 2005 by a new vehicle using some components of the GM Theta platform, and is built in Japan. The 2006 Grand Vitara was developed independently by many of the same Suzuki engineers who developed the Theta. Although it uses some Theta componentry, especially in the suspension, it is quite different and should not be considered a Theta vehicle. Notably, it uses a longitudinally-mounted engine and is rear-wheel drive with a 103.9 in (2639 mm) wheelbase, while all other Theta vehicles are transverse engined with front-wheel drive as the default. All can also be ordered with all-wheel drive as well, however. The contemporary generation Suzuki XL7 (starting in model year 2007) is a true Theta vehicle, and is built alongside the Chevrolet Equinox and Pontiac Torrent at CAMI Automotive in Ingersoll, Ontario, Canada.
The standard chassis is a 5 door version, but in many countries there is also available a 3 door version called "Vitara" (in some countries the 5 doors name "Gran Vitara" changes to "Gran Nomade"). The standard gasoline engine for the 5 door version is an updated J20A (4 cyl. 2.0L 140hp); and a more powerful option is the Suzuki H engine H27A (V6 2.7l 181hp). Pre 2001 turbo diesel models were fitted with Mazda's type RF engine, with later models fitted with a turbo diesel engine (4 cyl. 1.9L 129 hp (96 kW) manufactured by Renault). The only engine for the 3 door version is an M16A (4 cly. 1.6L 105hp).

In the second half of 2008, the Suzuki Grand Vitara was given a face-lift and two new engines. A 2.4L in-line four is offered producing 122kW of power and 225Nm of torque. The new V6 is only offered in the flagship prestige model which produces 165kW of power and 284Nm of torque. Fuel economy has also been improved with the addition of VVT to both engines and the 1.9L Turbo-Diesel has also received some mechanic work improving its economy. Safety has also been improved with more air-bags and traction control standard on all models. The four mode four-wheel drive system is also available on all models.

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Thursday, October 2, 2008

Suzuki splash

The Suzuki Splash is a city car introduced in model year 2008 and jointly developed between Suzuki Motor Corporation and Opel — which will also market their version as the Agila. It debuted as a concept car at the 2006 Paris Auto Show and the production model debuted at the 2007 Frankfurt Auto Show. The Splash is slotted below the Swift in the lineup, and uses a shortened wheelbase version of its chassis.
The car was launched with two petrol engines, a 3 cylinder 1.0 litre and 4 cylinder 1.2 litre, and a 4 cylinder version of Fiat's Multijet diesel engine. Unlike its predecessor, the Wagon-R, the Splash has five seats as standard.

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Wednesday, October 1, 2008

Whats behind a car crash test?

A crash test is a form of destructive testing usually performed in order to ensure safe design standards in Crashworthiness and crash compatibility for automobiles or related components.
Types

Frontal-Impact Tests, which is what most people initially think of when asked about a crash test. These are usually impacts upon a solid concrete wall at a specified speed, but can also be vehicle-vehicle tests. SUV's have been singled out in these tests for a while, due to the high ride-height that they often have.
Offset Tests, in which only part of the front of the car impacts with a barrier (vehicle). These are important, as impact forces (approximately) remain the same as with a frontal impact test, but a smaller fraction of the car is required to absorb all of the force. These tests are often realized by cars turning into oncoming traffic. In the U.S., this type of testing is done by the IIHS and EuroNCAP
Side-Impact Tests: these forms of accidents have a very significant likelihood of fatality, as cars don't have a significant crumple zone to absorb the impact forces before an occupant is injured.
Roll-over Tests which tests a car's ability (specifically the pillars holding the roof) to support itself in a dynamic impact. More recently dynamic rollover tests have been proposed as opposed to static crush testing (video).
Roadside hardware crash tests are used to ensure crash barriers and crash cushions will protect vehicle occupants from roadside hazards, and also to ensure that guard rails, sign posts, light poles and similar appurtenances do not pose an undue hazard to vehicle occupants.
Old versus New designs, often an old and big car against a small and new car Ford Fiesta Vs Ford Sierra,Renault Modus Vs Volvo 940, or two different generations of the same car model. These tests are performed to show the advancements in crashworthiness

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Cars:From India to Europe

Two carmakers are preparing to export low-cost vehicles from India to western Europe, even as rival Tata Motors struggles to get its no-frills Nano on the road in its home market.
Maruti Suzuki, India 's largest carmaker, and Japan's Nissan Motor will at this week's Paris auto exhibit Indian-made city cars destined for customers on the continent next year.
The Suzuki Alto and Nissan Pixo will be made at a factory in Manesar, northern India , under a partnership agreement and will mark the country's first largescale foray into car exports to western Europe.
"Our export target is 100,000 units of the new Alto by 2010-11," Maruti Suzuki spokesman Puneet Dhawan told the Financial Times on Monday, with another 50,000 sold in India.

The figure would cover both western and eastern Europe, Mr Dhawan said. The carmaker plans to scale up production later and expand exports to the Middle East and elsewhere.
Maruti exported an older version of the Alto to the Netherlands, Italy, the UK and other markets until 2006, but sold only about 100,000 units over seven years. MG Rover, before going into receivership in 2005, briefly sold Tata's Indica model rebadged as CityRover.
Neither Nissan nor Suzuki are discussing prices for their cars, which will face European import duties offsetting some of the cost benefits of producing in India.
Nissan described the Pixo as "an affordable small, eco-friendly city car at a time when this type of vehicle is in demand". The cars will launch at a time when Europeans are shifting into smaller cars and India 's fledgling motor industry is buying distressed carmaking assets in Europe.

Argentum Motors, an Indian company that in 2007 bought Daewoo's former manufacturing plants in India for about $200m, will in Paris show a prototype hybrid electric car.
Argentum recently bought Heuliez, a bankrupt French automotive design and engineering firm, and is exploring the possibility of building electric cars for the European market.
"We feel the market for these vehicles is first in Europe before India ," Ajay Singh, the company's chairman, told the FT this month.
Tata, which this year bought UK premium brands Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford Motor for $2.3bn, plans to participate in a capital increase of Pininfarina, the Italian design house.
India 's other fledgling carmakers, including Mahindra & Mahindra, are scouting Europe's troubled automotive design and engineering sector for companies that would allow them to build expertise and couple their existing front-office relationships with their own low-cost manufacturing operations.
Maruti, 54 per cent owned by Japan's Suzuki, describes the Alto as a "green car for European customers", with carbon dioxide emissions of just 109 grams per kilometer.
However, Indian-made cars could face scepticism from some European consumers. Some early Chinese-made cars exported to Europe failed crash tests and were later withdrawn.
The Alto and Pixo will be sold under the Suzuki and Nissan brands respectively, so few car buyers will know they were made in India.
Mr Dhawan said the Alto had a 4-star Euro NCAP crash-test rating. Five stars is the highest ranking.

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